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Thrombolytics for acute stroke

  • Updated 2016 Oct 28 02:31:00 PM: Royal College of Physicians national clinical guideline on stroke (RCP 2016) view update
  • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage reported in 6.7% of patients with acute ischemic stroke and unruptured intracranial aneurysm on systemic thrombolysis (Neurology 2015 Oct 27) view update
  • ACEP clinical policy on use of intravenous tPA for management of acute ischemic stroke in emergency department (National Guideline Clearinghouse 2015 Dec 28) view update

 

Topic Editor

Alexander Rae-Grant, MD
Recommendations Editor

Amir Qaseem, MD, PhD, MHA, FACP
Deputy Editor

Alan Ehrlich, MD

Note to Readers

  • This DynaMed topic (Thrombolytics for acute stroke) provides a synthesis of critically evaluated evidence and guidance written for use during clinical practice and is continuously updated with systematic literature surveillance and user feedback. This topic can be viewed in open access form or in DynaMed which supports easier navigation and search features.

 

Overview

  • alteplase (tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA], recombinant tissue plasminogen activator [rt-PA], Activase, Actilyse) is a thrombolytic used within 3 hours (or possibly within 4.5 hours) of symptom onset for acute ischemic stroke in carefully selected patients after intracranial hemorrhage has been ruled out
    • standard dose 0.9 mg/kg (maximum 90 mg) given IV as 10% over 1 minute and 90% over 1 hour
    • dose 0.6 mg/kg used in Japan
  • most guidelines (especially guidelines from neurologists and stroke specialists) recommend alteplase for carefully selected patients within 3 hours of acute ischemic stroke and also 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset, while multiple emergency medicine associations state use of t-PA is controversial and should not be considered standard of care
  • efficacy more likely with earlier treatment, especially treatment within 3 hours of stroke onset
    • t-PA given within 3 hours of acute ischemic stroke may increase functional independence without affecting overall mortality at 3-6 months, but associated with increased risk for symptomatic (and fatal) intracranial hemorrhage within 7 days (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
      Effect of t-PA at 0-3 Hours*:
      Outcome Likelihood with PlaceboLikelihood with t-PA
      Good functional outcome (mRS score 0-1) at 3 months26.5%42.5% (NNT 7)
      Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (NINDS definition) at 36 hours0.6%6.4% (NNH 17)
      Mortality at 3 months21%17% (not significant)
      Abbreviations: mRS, modified Rankin Scale; NINDS, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; t-PA, tissue plasminogen activator.

      * based on NINDS trial
    • t-PA given 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset increases risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and risk of fatal intracranial hemorrhage within 7 days (level 1 [likely reliable] evidence) and might increase 90-day mortality (level 2 [mid-level] evidence) while effect on improving functional outcomes is uncertain and inconsistent across trials
    • t-PA given > 4.5 hours after stroke onset may increase risk for fatal intracranial hemorrhage within 7 days and may increase 90-day mortality without increasing likelihood of functional independence (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
  • contraindications vary across guidelines and drug marketing authorization but usually include
    • any evidence of intracranial hemorrhage on neuroimaging, or symptoms suggestive of subarachnoid hemorrhage
    • severe stroke, based on National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥ 26 or ischemic signs involving > one-third of middle cerebral artery territory on neuroimaging
    • minor stroke - only minor symptoms or stroke is rapidly improving
    • seizure at stroke onset
    • platelet count < 100,000/mm3 or abnormal coagulation tests including INR > 1.7 or PT > 15 sec
    • blood glucose level < 50 mg/dL (2.8 mmol/L) or > 400 mg/dL (22.2 mmol/L)
    • recent procedures or surgery - arterial or venous puncture at noncompressible site in past 7 days, major surgery in past 2 weeks (or past 3 months)
    • recent trauma or cardiovascular event - prior stroke or myocardial infarction in past 3 months, serious trauma in past 2 weeks (or past 3 months), significant head trauma in past 3 months
    • comorbidities - blood pressure ≥ 185/110 mm Hg, neoplasm, acute pancreatitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, severe liver disease, ulcerative gastrointestinal disease, arteriovenous malformation, aneurysm, diabetes in patients with prior stroke
    • history of or current bleeding - active bleeding, gastrointestinal tract or urinary tract bleeding in prior 3 weeks, known hemorrhagic diathesis, history of intracranial hemorrhage
  • prethrombolysis testing (especially to rule out contraindications) includes neuroimaging, blood tests (glucose, electrolytes, renal function tests, hepatic function tests, complete blood count including platelets, prothrombin time [INR], activated partial thromboplastin time, markers of cardiac ischemia), oxygen saturation, electrocardiogram, and additional tests based on history and exam
  • for predicting outcomes with IV t-PA (to inform decision-making)
  • monitoring patient on IV t-PA
    • monitor blood pressure and neurologic assessment every 15 minutes for 2 hours, then every 30 minutes for 6 hours, then every hour until 24 hours after treatment
    • discontinue alteplase and obtain emergency computed tomography (CT) if severe headache, acute hypertension, nausea, vomiting, or worsening neurologic exam
  • withhold aspirin for first 24 hours after giving t-PA, but then aspirin 160-325 mg/day recommended within 48 hours after ischemic stroke
  • intra-arterial thrombolysis
  • agents other than t-PA should only be used in setting of clinical trial (AHA/ASA Class IIb, Level B)

Assessment

Time of symptom onset

  • establishing time of symptom onset is important for administration of thrombolytics(1)
    • time of stroke onset is when patients were at their previous baseline or symptom-free state
    • if patient cannot give this information, time of onset is when patient was last awake and symptom free or known to be "normal"
    • if patient had neurological symptoms that resolved, time of symptom onset begins anew

NIH Stroke Scale

  • National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)
    • stroke scale ranges from 0 to 42 points, with higher score indicating more severe stroke
    • level of consciousness
      • alert (0 points)
      • not alert, but arousable by minor stimulation to obey, answer, or respond (1 point)
      • not alert, requires repeated stimulation to attend, or is obtunded and requires strong or painful stimulation to make movements (not stereotyped) (2 points)
      • responds only with reflex motor or autonomic effects or totally unresponsive, flaccid, and areflexic (3 points)
    • patient knows month and own age
      • answers both questions correctly (0 points)
      • answers 1 question correctly (1 point)
      • answers neither question correctly (2 points)
    • patient opens and closes eyes on command
      • performs both tasks correctly (0 points)
      • performs 1 task correctly (1 point)
      • performs neither task correctly (2 points)
    • best gaze (only horizontal eye movement)
      • normal (0 points)
      • partial gaze palsy (1 point)
      • forced deviation (2 points)
    • visual field testing
      • no visual loss (0 points)
      • partial hemianopia (1 point)
      • complete hemianopia (2 points)
      • bilateral hemianopia (blind including cortical blindness) (3 points)
    • facial palsy (ask patient to show teeth or raise eyebrows and close eye)
      • normal symmetrical movement (0 points)
      • minor paralysis (flattened nasolabial fold, asymmetry on smiling) (1 point)
      • partial paralysis (total or near total paralysis of lower face) (2 points)
      • complete paralysis of 1 or both sides (absence of facial movement in the upper and lower face) (3 points)
    • motor function of right arm
      • no drift (0 points)
      • drift (1 point)
      • some effort against gravity (2 points)
      • no effort against gravity (3 points)
      • no movement (4 points)
      • UN (untestable) = amputation or joint fusion
    • motor function of left arm
      • no drift (0 points)
      • drift (1 point)
      • some effort against gravity (2 points)
      • no effort against gravity (3 points)
      • no movement (4 points)
      • UN (untestable) = amputation or joint fusion
    • motor function of right leg
      • no drift (0 points)
      • drift (1 point)
      • some effort against gravity (2 points)
      • no effort against gravity (3 points)
      • no movement (4 points)
      • UN (untestable) = amputation or joint fusion
    • motor function of left leg
      • no drift (0 points)
      • drift (1 point)
      • some effort against gravity (2 points)
      • no effort against gravity (3 points)
      • no movement (4 points)
      • UN (untestable) = amputation or joint fusion
    • limb ataxia
      • absent (0 points)
      • present in 1 limb (1 point)
      • present in 2 limbs (2 points)
      • UN (untestable) = amputation or joint fusion
    • sensory by pinprick
      • normal (0 points)
      • mild-to-moderate sensory loss (1 point)
      • severe or total sensory loss (2 points)
    • language
      • no aphasia (0 points)
      • mild-to-moderate aphasia (1 point)
      • severe aphasia (2 points)
      • mute, global aphasia (3 points)
    • dysarthria
      • normal (0 points)
      • mild-to-moderate dysarthria (1 point)
      • severe dysarthria (2 points)
      • UN (untestable) = intubated or other physical barrier
    • extinction and inattention
      • no abnormality (0 points)
      • visual, tactile, auditory, spatial, or personal inattention or extinction to bilateral simultaneous stimulation in 1 of the sensory modalities (1 point)
      • profound hemi-inattention or extinction to more than 1 modality (2 points)
    • Reference - NIH Stroke Scale PDF or booklet

Modified Rankin Scale

  • modified Rankin Scale (mRS) commonly used to report functional outcomes in stroke studies
    Modified Rankin Scale:
    Score Description Classification
    0No symptomsNot disabled
    1No significant disability, able to carry out all dutiesNot disabled
    2Unable to carry out some previous activities but able to look after own affairs without assistance Slight disability
    3Requiring some help but able to walk without assistanceModerate disability
    4Unable to walk without assistance and unable to meet bodily needs without assistanceModerately severe disability
    5Bedridden, incontinent, and requiring constant nursing careSevere disability
    Reference - J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1991 Dec;54(12):1044.

Neuroimaging for determining eligibility for thrombolytics

  • American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) recommendations(1)
    • emergency brain imaging recommended before beginning any specific therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AHA/ASA Class I, Level A), non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) adequate for emergency management decisions in most cases
    • in IV fibrinolysis candidates
      • either non-contrast-enhanced CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended before IV fibrinolysis to exclude intracerebral hemorrhage (absolute contraindication) and to determine whether CT hypodensity or MRI hyperintensity of ischemia is present (AHA/ASA Class I, Level A)
      • brain imaging study should be interpreted within 45 minutes of patient arrival in emergency department by physician with expertise in reading CT and MRI studies of brain parenchyma (AHA/ASA Class I, Level C)
      • CT perfusion and MRI perfusion and diffusion imaging, including measures of infarct core and penumbra, may be considered for selection of patients for acute reperfusion therapy beyond time windows for IV fibrinolysis (AHA/ASA Class IIb, Level B)
  • use of multimodal imaging criteria may be useful for patient selection for thrombolysis but is not recommended for routine clinical practice (ESO Level C, Class III)(6)
  • ruling out intracerebral hemorrhage
    • nonenhanced CT can rule out parenchymal hemorrhage which is a contraindication to thrombolysis (fibrinolytic therapy)(1)
    • physicians other than neuroradiologists may not achieve sufficient sensitivity for identification of intracerebral hemorrhage to permit safe selection of candidates for thrombolytic therapy
      • 38 emergency physicians, 29 neurologists, and 36 general radiologists were shown 15 CT scans with intracerebral hemorrhage, acute infarction, intracerebral calcifications (impostor for hemorrhage), old cerebral infarction (impostor for acute infarction), and normal findings
      • overall rate of correct readings 67% for emergency physicians, 83% for neurologists, and 83% for general radiologists
      • overall sensitivity for detecting intracerebral hemorrhage 82%
      • 100% sensitivity for detecting intracerebral hemorrhage achieved by 17% emergency physicians, 40% neurologists, and 52% general radiologists
      • Reference - JAMA 1998 Apr 22-29;279(16):1293, editorial can be found in JAMA 1998 Apr 22-29;279(16):1307, commentary can be found in J Fam Pract 1998 Jul;47(1):12, JAMA 1999 Jan 6;281(1):31
  • extent of ischemic changes on initial neuroimaging
    • IV fibrinolytic therapy should be withheld if frank hypodensity involves > one-third of middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory, because frank hypodensity on nonenhanced CT may increase risk of hemorrhage with fibrinolysis (AHA/ASA Class III, Level A)(1)
    • early ischemic changes no longer considered a clear contraindication to thrombolytics
      • IV fibrinolytic therapy is recommended in setting of early ischemic changes (other than frank hypodensity) on CT, regardless of their extent (AHA/ASA Class I, Level A)(1)
      • presence of decreased attenuation on early CT is not absolute contraindication for use of thrombotic therapy in first 3 hours after stroke, because evidence is conflicting (EFNS GCPP, Class IV) (EFNS 2011 PDF)
      • DynaMed commentary
        • review of evidence cited in AHA/ASA and European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) guidelines notes
          • multiple studies finding associations of early ischemic changes in > one-third of MCA territory and increased risk for hemorrhagic transformation following tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)
          • 2 studies reported as finding "no relation" in EFNS guideline were National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) trial (which was reported in AHA/ASA guideline as finding such a relation, original NINDS trial suggests a relation with very limited detail reported) and a streptokinase trial
        • rationale that increased risk may be attributed to delayed treatment suggests support for earlier treatment, but also could be interpreted as increased risk if such changes are apparent on neuroimaging by the time treatment is given
    • hypoattenuation of < one-third of middle cerebral artery territory on baseline CT may be associated with better outcome with t-PA treatment (level 2 [mid-level] evidence), while lack of any hypoattenuation or hypoattenuation > one-third of middle cerebral artery territory may be associated with increased fatal hemorrhage with rt-PA (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
      • based on secondary analysis of European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) I data without blinding
      • in ECASS I, 620 patients with acute ischemic hemisphere stroke were randomized to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) vs. placebo
        • inclusion criteria included
          • patients with moderate-to-severe neurological deficit
          • no or only minor early infarct signs on initial computed tomography (CT)
        • exclusion criteria included
          • hemiplegia and impairment of consciousness or forced head and eye deviation
          • major infarct signs on initial CT (diffuse swelling of affected hemisphere or parenchymal hypodensity in > 33% of middle cerebral artery territory)
      • 3 readers evaluated 603 baseline CTs for hypoattenuation of 0% (none), ≤ 33% (small), or > 33% (large)
      • 90-day mortality comparing rt-PA vs. placebo
        • 16% vs. 10% in 336 patients with no hypoattenuated area (not significant)
        • 24% vs. 22% in 215 patients with small hypoattenuated area (not significant)
        • 48% vs. 29% in 52 patients with large hypoattenuated area (not significant)
      • 90-day lack of disability comparing rt-PA vs. placebo
        • 47% vs. 41% in 336 patients with no hypoattenuated area (not significant)
        • 28% vs. 10% in 215 patients with small hypoattenuated area (p < 0.05, NNT 6)
        • 6% vs. 14% in 52 patients with large hypoattenuated area (not significant)
      • 90-day fatal hemorrhage rate comparing rt-PA vs. placebo
        • 5% vs. 1% in 336 patients with no hypoattenuated area (p < 0.05, NNH 25)
        • 4% vs. 5% in 215 patients with small hypoattenuated area (not significant)
        • 16% vs. 0% in 52 patients with large hypoattenuated area (p = 0.07)
      • Reference - Radiology 1997 Nov;205(2):327
    • early ischemic changes in > one-third middle cerebral artery territory on CT suggest increased mortality if given thrombolytics (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
      • based on limited evidence
      • early ischemic changes in > one-third middle cerebral artery territory on CT suggest increased mortality if given thrombolytics (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence)
        • based on reanalysis of randomized trial with inadequate power to rule out clinically significant differences
        • 616 patients randomized in NINDS trial to rt-PA vs. placebo within 3 hours of stroke onset and stratified by baseline CT
        • 194 (31%) had early ischemic changes on baseline head CT, including any of
          • loss of gray/white matter distinction
          • hypodensity or hypoattenuation
          • compression of cerebrospinal fluid spaces
        • early ischemic changes on baseline CT associated with worse outcomes, but not significant after adjustment for stroke severity
        • early ischemic CT results did not affect functional outcome results when comparing rt-PA vs. placebo groups
        • 90-day mortality comparing rt-PA vs. placebo
          • 14% vs. 20% in patients without early ischemic changes (not statistically significant)
          • 18% vs. 18% in patients with early ischemic changes < one-third of middle cerebral artery territory (not statistically significant)
          • 34% vs. 26% in patients with early ischemic changes > one-third of middle cerebral artery territory (not statistically significant)
        • Reference - JAMA 2001 Dec 12;286(22):2830 full-text, commentary can be found in JAMA 2002 May 8;287(18):2361
      • exclusion of patients with > one-third early ischemic changes of middle cerebral artery territory from thrombolytic use reported to decrease death and dependency (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence)
        • based on case series in London, Ontario (indirect comparisons)
        • 30 patients were treated with t-PA based on NINDS criteria except for exclusion of patients with > one-third involvement of middle cerebral artery territory on neuroimaging
        • NINDS criteria included
          • ischemic stroke with clear time of onset
          • measurable deficit
          • base-line CT without evidence of intracranial hemorrhage
          • exclusions included
            • stroke or serious head trauma within preceding 3 months
            • major surgery within 14 days
            • history of intracranial hemorrhage
            • systolic blood pressure above 185 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure above 110 mm Hg
            • rapidly improving or minor symptoms
            • symptoms suggestive of subarachnoid hemorrhage
            • gastrointestinal hemorrhage or urinary tract hemorrhage within previous 21 days
            • arterial puncture at a noncompressible site within previous 7 days
            • seizure at the onset of stroke
        • patient outcomes were compared to NINDS trial
        • comparing London patients vs. treated arm of NINDS trial
          • more London patients were treated after 90 minutes (p < 0.0001)
          • fewer patients dead or severely disabled at 3 months (p = 0.04)
        • comparing London patients vs. placebo arm of NINDS trial
          • more patients made partial recovery at 24 hours (p = 0.02)
          • more had normal outcomes (p = 0.03)
          • fewer dead or severely disabled at 3 months (p = 0.004)
        • Reference - Can J Neurol Sci 2001 May;28(2):113
    • Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) to guide use of alteplase (t-PA) has mixed results in analysis of 2 randomized trials
      • based on reanalysis of CT scans from ECASS II and NINDS trials
      • ASPECTS value ≤ 7 suggests major stroke based on involvement of ≥ 3 of 10 regions of middle cerebral artery territory
      • in ECASS II, 800 patients randomized to alteplase vs. placebo within 6 hours of symptom onset
        • 788 baseline CT scans retrospectively read and assigned to either ASPECTS of ≤ 7 or > 7
        • outcomes were secondary parenchymal hematoma and modified Rankin Scale at 90 days
        • higher risk of thrombolysis-related hemorrhage after t-PA for ASPECTS of ≤ 7 vs. > 7 (p = 0.033)
        • patients with high ASPECTS values had better outcomes than those with low values, regardless of thrombolytic treatment (p = 0.011)
        • Reference - Stroke 2006 Apr;37(4):973 full-text
      • in NINDS t-PA, 624 patients randomized to alteplase vs. placebo within 3 hours of symptom onset
        • 608 baseline CT scans were retrospectively read by expert ASPECTS readers and consensus score derived
        • early ischemic changes seen on 57.2% of CTs with ASPECTS value < 10
        • ASPECTS dichotomized into ≤ 7 vs. > 7 not associated with treatment effect for better outcome
        • Reference - Stroke 2005 Oct;36(10):2110 full-text
  • perfusion CT reported to select patients who could receive thrombolytics > 3 hours after stroke onset and have low rates of mortality (3%) and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (4%) with high rate of functional independence (70%) (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence)
    • based on systematic review of mostly uncontrolled studies
    • systematic review of 13 studies reporting outcomes in patients treated with IV thrombolytics after perfusion CT
    • among patients treated > 3 hours after symptom onset
      • 90-day mortality 2.9% (95% CI 0%-12.7%) among 3 studies with 23 patients eligible for analysis
      • modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 2 at 90 days in 69.9% (95% CI 0%-83.5%) among 3 studies with 53 patients eligible for analysis
      • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in hospital in 3.9% (95% CI 0.8%-9.2%) among 5 studies with 77 patients eligible for analysis
    • Reference - Radiology 2015 Jan;274(1):103

Additional testing before thrombolytics

Emergency Tests Recommended in All Patients:
Test American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA)(1)European Stroke Organisation (ESO)(6)
Noncontrast brain computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)RecommendedRecommended
Blood glucoseRecommendedRecommended
Serum electrolytes and renal function testsRecommendedRecommended
Electrocardiogram (ECG)Recommended*Recommended
Complete blood count (including platelet count)RecommendedRecommended
Prothrombin time/INRRecommendedRecommended
Activated partial thromboplastin timeRecommendedRecommended
Markers of cardiac ischemiaRecommended**Not stated
Oxygen saturationRecommendedRecommended in selected patients
C-reactive protein (CRP) or sedimentation rateNot statedRecommended
Hepatic function testsRecommended in selected patientsRecommended
* Baseline ECG recommended, but should not delay IV tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) (AHA/ASA Class I, Level B).

** Baseline troponin level recommended, but should not delay IV t-PA (AHA/ASA Class I, Level C).

Emergency Tests Recommended in Selected Patients:
Test Recommending Group(s)(1, 6)Considerations(1, 6)
ElectroencephalographyAHA/ASA and ESOPerform if seizure suspected
Lumbar punctureAHA/ASA and ESOPerform if subarachnoid hemorrhage suspected and head CT negative for blood
Chest radiographyAHA/ASA* and ESOPerform if lung disease suspected
Arterial blood gasAHA/ASA and ESOPerform if hypoxia suspected
Toxicology screenAHA/ASA and ESONone stated
Pregnancy testAHA/ASANone stated
Hepatic function testsAHA/ASA, recommended by ESO in all patientsNone stated
Thrombin time, ecarin clotting time, and/or factor Xa activity assaysAHA/ASAPerform if patient taking direct thrombin inhibitor or direct factor Xa inhibitor
Blood alcohol levelAHA/ASANone stated
Extracranial and transcranial Duplex/Doppler ultrasoundESONone stated
Magnetic resonance angiography or computed tomography angiographyESONone stated
Diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging or perfusion computed tomographyESONone stated
Echocardiography (transthoracic and/or transoesophageal)ESONone stated
Pulse oximetryESO, recommended by AHA/ASA in all patientsNone stated
Abbreviations: AHA/ASA, American Heart Association/American Stroke Association; CT, computed tomography; ESO, European Stroke Organisation.

* Chest x-ray has unclear usefulness in hyperacute stroke setting in absence of evidence of acute pulmonary, cardiac, or pulmonary vascular disease; chest x-ray should not delay fibrinolysis (IV t-PA) (AHA/ASA Class IIb, Level B).

Informed Decision-Making

Prediction of outcomes with thrombolytics

Prediction of functional outcome following IV rt-PA

  • DRAGON score predicts 3-month functional outcome following IV t-PA in patients with ischemic stroke (level 1 [likely reliable] evidence)
    • based on derivation and validation cohort study
    • derivation cohort included 1,319 patients (median age 69 years) treated with IV alteplase within 4.5 hours of onset of ischemic stroke, excluding patients with basilar artery occlusion
      • 60.5% had good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) at 3 months
      • 13.8% had poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 5-6) at 3 months
    • validation cohort included 333 patients (median age 75 years) treated with IV alteplase within 4.5 hours of onset of ischemic stroke
      • 56.8% had good functional outcome at 3 months
      • 19.8% had poor functional outcome at 3 months
    • DRAGON score (total score 0-10 points)
      • hyperdense cerebral artery sign on admission computed tomography (CT) scan - 1 point
      • early infarct signs on admission CT scan - 1 point
      • prestroke modified Rankin Scale score > 1 - 1 point
      • age - 0 points if < 65 years, 1 point if 65-79 years, 2 points if ≥ 80 years
      • glucose level at admission > 8 mmol/L (144 mg/dL) - 1 point
      • onset to treatment time > 90 minutes - 1 point
      • admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score - 0 points if 0-4, 1 point if 5-9, 2 points if 10-15, 3 points if > 15
    • 3-month outcomes by DRAGON score in derivation cohort
      Results:
      DRAGON Score Number of Patients Good Outcome (mRS score 0-2) inPoor Outcome (mRS score 5-6) in
      0-1 point13796%0%
      2 points20888%2%
      3 points28774%5%
      4 points24955%10%
      5 points19645%16%
      6 points14725%31%
      7 points7213%56%
      8 points160%70%
      9-10 points70%100%
      Abbreviation: mRS, modified Rankin Scale.
    • DRAGON score had similar predictive performance in validation cohort
      Results:
      DRAGON Score Number of Patients Good Outcome (mRS score 0-2) inPoor Outcome (mRS score 5-6) in
      0-1 point799%0%
      2 points3190%0%
      3 points4176%7%
      4 points5872%10%
      5 points8662%15%
      6 points6133%25%
      7 points3222%56%
      8 points141%72%
      9-10 points80%99%
      Abbreviation: mRS, modified Rankin Scale.
    • Reference - Neurology 2012 Feb 7;78(6):427
  • stroke-thrombolytic predictive instrument (Stroke-TPI) may predict likelihood of good or poor outcome following IV t-PA for acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on validation cohort study with modest predictive accuracy
    • Stroke-TPI derived from 2,184 patients in 5 randomized trials of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) within 0-6 hours of stroke onset (Stroke 2006 Dec;37(12):2957 full-text)
    • Stroke-TPI available online at Acute Stroke Assessment and Treatment (ASAT) Tool from Tufts-New England Medical Center (login required)
    • validation study included 301 patients receiving t-PA within 4.5 hours of acute ischemic stroke from ongoing prospective registry
      • 35% had good outcome defined as modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 at 3 months
      • 26% had poor outcome defined as modified Rankin Scale score 5-6 at 3 months
      • Stroke-TPI "reasonably valid" for predicting outcome but
        • overestimated good outcome at 45%
        • underestimated poor outcome at 17%
      • Reference - J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008 Sep;79(9):1079
    • addition of serum glucose and signs of current infarction on pretreatment brain scan to Stroke-TPI score might improve predictive performance
      • based on cohort study without validation
      • Stroke-TPI score was recalibrated using data from 4,072 patients
      • addition of serum glucose and signs of current infarction on pretreatment brain scan to Stroke-TPI score associated with reduced discrepancy between predicted and observed outcomes
      • Reference - Stroke 2012 Dec;43(12):3378 full-text
    • simplified Stroke-TPI score including age, stroke severity, and serum glucose levels can be found in Neurology 2015 Sep 15;85(11):942

Prediction of intracerebral hemorrhage following IV rt-PA

  • 6 different scoring systems have moderate ability to predict symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with ischemic stroke following IV thrombolysis treatment, SEDAN score may have highest predictive power (level 1 [likely reliable] evidence)
    • based on prognostic cohort study
    • 3,012 patients (median age 71 years) with ischemic stroke treated with IV thrombolysis were assessed for risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage by 6 prediction scores
      • SEDAN
      • Glucose Race Age Sex Pressure Stroke Severity (GRASPS)
      • Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke (SITS)
      • Hemorrhage After Thrombolysis (HAT)
      • Multicenter Stroke Survey (MSS)
      • Stroke Prognostication using Age and NIH Stroke Scale (SPAN-100)
    • symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage in
      • 7.3% using National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) definition (any deterioration in NIHSS score or death within 7 days combined with intracerebral hemorrhage of any type [including petechial] on any posttreatment imaging after start of thrombolysis)
      • 4.7% using European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) II definition (any type of intracerebral hemorrhage on any posttreatment imaging after start of thrombolysis and increase ≥ 4 points on NIHSS from baseline, or from lowest value within 7 days, or death)
      • 2.9% using SITS Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST) definition (type 2 parenchymal hemorrhage plus ≥ 4-point deterioration on NIHSS or death)
    • all scores had modest-to-moderate predictive performance across all intracerebral hemorrhage definitions (c-statistics 0.55-0.7)
    • SEDAN score associated with significantly greater performance against all other scores (except GRASPS with NINDS and ECASS intracerebral hemorrhage definitions)
    • SPAN-100 score associated with significantly lower performance against all other scores with NINDS and ECASS intracerebral hemorrhage definitions
    • Reference - Stroke 2014 Mar;45(3):752
  • SEDAN score has moderate ability to predict symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage following IV t-PA treatment (level 1 [likely reliable] evidence)
    • based on validation cohort study
    • 45,074 patients with stroke treated with IV t-PA were evaluated
    • symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage in
      • 1.7% of 36,127 patients with complete data using SITS-MOST definition (type 2 parenchymal hemorrhage plus ≥ 4-point deterioration on NIHSS or death)
      • 5.1% of 36,027 patients with complete data using ECASS II definition (any type of intracerebral hemorrhage on any posttreatment imaging after start of thrombolysis and increase ≥ 4 points on NIHSS from baseline, or from lowest value within 7 days, or death)
    • SEDAN score (total score 0-6 points)
      • baseline blood glucose = 1 point if 145-216 mg/dL, 2 points if > 216 mg/dL
      • early infarct signs on baseline computed tomography scan = 1 point
      • hyperdense cerebral artery sign on baseline computed tomography scan = 1 point
      • age > 75 years = 1 point
      • baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≥ 10 = 1 point
    • rate of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage by SEDAN score
      Total ScoreBy SITS-MOST DefinitionBy ECASS II Definition
      0 points0.8%1.6%
      1 point1.5%3.3%
      2 points2%5.4%
      3 points2.3%8.8%
      4 points3%12.3%
      ≥ 5 points5.4%16.9%
      Abbreviations: ECASS, European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study; SITS-MOST, Safe Implementation of Treatments in Stroke Monitoring Study.
    • statistical assessment of predictive ability of SEDAN score was
      • moderate for symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage using ECASS II definition (c-statistic 0.66)
      • low for symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage using SITS-MOST definition (c-statistic 0.6)
      • DynaMed commentary -- c-statistic values range from 0.5 to 1 with 0.8-1 considered strong, but unclear if c-statistic is optimal analysis method to rate predictive ability of continuous score
    • Reference - Stroke 2013 Jun;44(6):1595
  • Safe Implementation of Treatments in Stroke (SITS) score predicts risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage following IV t-PA treatment (level 1 [likely reliable] evidence)
    • based on derivation and validation cohort study
    • 31,627 patients with acute ischemic stroke who were treated with IV t-PA were randomly divided into derivation cohort with 15,814 patients and validation cohort with 15,813 patients
    • symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage in
      • 1.8% using SITS-MOST definition (type 2 parenchymal hemorrhage plus ≥ 4-point deterioration on NIHSS or death)
      • 5.1% using ECASS II definition (any type of intracerebral hemorrhage on any posttreatment imaging after start of thrombolysis and increase ≥ 4 points on NIHSS from baseline, or from lowest value within 7 days, or death)
      • 7.4% using NINDS definition (any deterioration in NIHSS score or death within 7 days combined with intracerebral hemorrhage of any type [including petechial] on any posttreatment imaging after start of thrombolysis)
    • SITS score derived based on risk factors significantly associated with symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (using SITS-MOST definition) (total score 0-12 points)
      • drug therapy = 3 points if aspirin plus clopidogrel, 2 points if aspirin monotherapy
      • NIHSS = 2 points if ≥ 13 points, 1 point if 7-12 points
      • blood glucose ≥ 180 mg/dL = 2 points
      • age ≥ 72 years = 1 point
      • systolic blood pressure ≥ 146 mm Hg = 1 point
      • history of hypertension = 1 point
      • weight ≥ 95 kg (209.4 lbs) = 1 point
      • onset-to-treatment time ≥ 180 minutes = 1 point
    • rate of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage in combined cohorts by SITS score
      Results:
      Total ScoreBy SITS-MOST DefinitionBy ECASS II Definition By NINDS Definition
      0 points0.2%1.4%1.4%
      3 points1.09%3.6%5.4%
      6 points3.14%7.5%11%
      ≥ 9 points9.25%23.2%25.8%
      Abbreviations: ECASS, European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study; NINDS, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; SITS-MOST, Safe Implementation of Treatments in Stroke Monitoring Study.
    • Reference - Stroke 2012 Jun;43(6):1524 full-text, correction can be found in Stroke 2012 Sep;43(9):e102
  • GRASPS score may predict risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 36 hours after treatment with IV t-PA (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on cohort study with incomplete external validation
    • 10,242 patients who received IV t-PA within 3 hours of acute ischemic stroke were randomly divided into derivation cohort (70%) and internal validation cohort (30%)
    • 496 (4.8%) patients overall had symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 36 hours of treatment
    • 6 risk factors significantly associated with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage after t-PA treatment were identified in derivation cohort and confirmed in internal validation cohort
    • GRASPS score for risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage derived with points for risk factors based on combined derivation and validation cohorts (total score 45-101 points)
      • blood glucose = 2 points if < 100 mg/dL, 6 points if 100-149 mg/dL, 8 points if ≥ 150 mg/dL
      • Asian ethnicity = 9 points
      • age = 8 points if ≤ 60 years old, 11 points if aged 61-70 years, 15 points if aged 71-80 years, 17 points if > 80 years old
      • male = 4 points
      • systolic blood pressure = 10 points if < 120 mm Hg, 14 points if 120-149 mm Hg, 18 points if 150-179 mm Hg, 21 points if ≥ 180 mm Hg
      • stroke severity by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score = 25 points if 0-5, 27 points if 6-10, 34 points if 11-15, 40 points if 16-20, 42 points if > 20
    • predicted risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 36 hours of IV t-PA treatment by GRASPS score
      Results:
      Total ScorePredicted Risk of Symptomatic Intracranial Hemorrhage
      45-73 points1%-5%
      74-82 points6%-10%
      83-87 points10%-15%
      88-92 points15%-20%
      93-95 points20%-25%
      96-98 points25%-30%
      ≥ 99 points> 30%
    • limited data reported showing validation of GRASPS score in external cohort of 309 patients from NINDS trial
    • Reference - Stroke 2012 Sep;43(9):2293 full-text
  • hemorrhage after thrombolysis (HAT) score may predict risk of intracerebral hemorrhage after IV t-PA (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on small combined cohorts study
    • HAT score 0-5 based on
      • pretreatment NIHSS score
        • 1 point if 15-20
        • 2 points if ≥ 20
      • extent of hypodensity on computed tomography (CT) scan
        • 1 point if any hypodensity but < one-third middle cerebral artery territory
        • 2 points if ≥ one-third middle cerebral artery territory
      • history of diabetes of baseline blood glucose > 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) - 1 point
    • HAT score derived from 9 studies reporting factors predicting hemorrhagic transformation after t-PA for acute ischemic stroke
    • HAT score validated in 302 patients in NINDS trials 1-2 and 98 consecutively treated patients at authors' institution
    • rates of intracerebral hemorrhage with HAT Score in combined cohorts (400) patients
      Results:
      HAT Score 0 1 2 3 4-5
      Number of patients15312184339
      Any intracerebral hemorrhage6%16%23%36%78%
      Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage2%5%10%15%44%
      Fatal intracerebral hemorrhage0%3%7%6%33%
      Abbreviation: HAT, hemorrhage after thrombolysis.
    • Reference - Neurology 2008 Oct 28;71(18):1417 full-text

Risk factors for poor outcomes with thrombolytics

  • DynaMed commentary -- because these studies only included thrombolytic-treated patients, they cannot determine whether thrombolytics have more harm or benefit compared with placebo in patients with risk factors
  • factors associated with increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage following recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment
    • based on systematic review
    • systematic review of 55 studies reporting intracranial hemorrhage following rt-PA treatment for acute ischemic stroke in 65,264 patients
    • analyses evaluated associations between baseline variables and incidence of intracranial hemorrhage after treatment with rt-PA
    • baseline factors associated with increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage following rt-PA treatment included
      • more severe ischemic changes in middle cerebral artery territory on computed tomography (CT) (odds ratio [OR] 3.46, 95% CI 1.92-6.21)
      • renal impairment (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.19-6.54)
      • leukoaraiosis on imaging (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.64-3.66)
      • brain lesion on imaging (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.59-3.58)
      • prestroke antiplatelet treatment (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.46-2.97)
      • heart failure (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.3-2.94)
      • atrial fibrillation (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.5-2.31)
      • older age (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.17-2.71)
      • prestroke statin treatment (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.14-2.61)
      • more severe stroke symptoms (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.11-2.16)
      • diabetes (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.18-2.02)
      • ischemic heart disease (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.08-2.2)
      • prior hypertension (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.18-1.89)
    • smoking associated with decreased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.55-0.89)
    • Reference - Stroke 2012 Nov;43(11):2904 full-text
  • diabetes associated with poorer outcome in patients treated with thrombolysis
    • based on retrospective cohort study
    • 12,686 patients with acute stroke were analyzed
      • 3,228 had diabetes
      • 1,689 were treated with thrombolysis
    • comparing patients with diabetes vs. no diabetes treated with thrombolysis
      • 30-day mortality or disability at discharge in 75.7% vs. 68.9% (p = 0.01)
      • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in 7.5% vs. 6.8% (not significant)
    • no significant difference in predicted response to thrombolysis (as predicted by iScore) comparing stroke patients with diabetes vs. without diabetes
    • Reference - Diabetes Care 2013 Jul;36(7):2041
  • longer occlusion in M1 segment of middle cerebral artery associated with reduced likelihood of favorable outcome at 3 months after IV thrombolysis for middle cerebral artery stroke
    • based on prognostic cohort study
    • 80 patients (mean age 71 years, 59% female) having IV rt-PA within 4.5 hours for acute middle cerebral artery stroke (71% with isolated M1 segment occlusion and 29% with extension to M2 segment) were assessed
      • all patients had 4-dimensional computed tomography angiography of middle cerebral artery occlusion at admission and 22-26 hours after IV rt-PA
      • length of occlusion determined using temporal maximum intensity projection
    • 46% had successful recanalization after rt-PA and 31% had favorable outcome defined as modified Rankin Score 0-2 at 3 months
    • median M1 segment occlusion 8.1 mm in patients with favorable outcome vs. 14.3 mm in patients without favorable outcome (p < 0.001)
    • longer length of M1 segment occlusion associated with reduced likelihood of
      • favorable outcome (odds ratio 0.79, 95% CI 0.69-0.91)
      • successful recanalization (odds ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.73-0.92)
    • Reference - Stroke 2014 Jul;45(7):2010
  • risk factors for in-hospital mortality include older age and altered level of consciousness
  • risk factors for lack of improvement at 24 hours include glucose level > 144 mg/dL (8 mmol/L), cortical involvement, and longer time to treatment
  • stroke severity (increasing NIHSS score) may predict discharge to rehabilitation or nursing facility
    • based on cohort study of 546 patients with treated with rt-PA for acute ischemic stroke
    • patients with symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage were never discharged to home
    • Reference - Arch Neurol 2004 Jul;61(7):1061 full-text
  • posterior circulation stroke associated with lower risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage than anterior circulation stroke in patients treated with thrombolysis
    • based on prospective cohort study of 883 patients receiving thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke
    • 11% (mean age 63 years, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score 9) had posterior circulation stroke
    • 89% (mean age 67 years, NIHSS score 12) had anterior circulation stroke
    • comparing posterior vs. anterior circulation stroke at 3 months
      • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in 0% vs. 5% (p = 0.025)
      • mortality 9% vs. 13% (not significant)
      • favorable outcome in 66% vs. 47% (not significant in adjusted analysis)
    • Reference - Stroke 2011 Sep;42(9):2498 full-text
  • antiplatelet therapy prior to thrombolytic
    • chronic antiplatelet therapy prior to IV thrombolytics in high-risk patients associated with significant risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
      • based on prospective cohort study with significant baseline differences
      • 301 consecutive patients who had IV thrombolytics for ischemic stroke were followed for 3 months
      • 89 (29.5%) patients had antiplatelet drugs prior to thrombolysis
      • comparing patients taking antiplatelet therapy vs. patients not taking antiplatelet therapy
        • mean age 73 years vs. 66 years
        • previous stroke in 46.1% vs. 5.2%
        • hypertension in 58.4% vs. 38.6%
        • symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage in 13.5% vs. 2.8% (p = 0.001, NNH 9)
        • favorable outcome at 3 months defined as modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 2 in 50.6% vs. 44.8% (not significant)
      • Reference - Arch Neurol 2008 May;65(5):607
    • antiplatelet therapy may increase risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, but without adverse effect on mortality or functional outcome in patients on antiplatelet therapy at onset of ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
      • based on cohort of 11,865 patients receiving thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke
      • pretreatment with 1 or 2 antiplatelet drugs in 31.9% patients
      • overall incidence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage 1.5% by Safe Implementation of Treatments in Stroke Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST) definition (deterioration in NIHSS 4 plus intracerebral hemorrhage type 2 within 24 hours)
      • antiplatelet pretreatment associated with increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage by SITS-MOST definition (odds ratio 1.28, 95% CI 1.08-1.52)
      • antiplatelet pretreatment not associated with increased risk of
        • mortality
        • poor functional outcomes
      • Reference - Stroke 2010 Feb;41(2):288 full-text
  • subtherapeutic warfarin use not associated with increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage, serious hemorrhage, or mortality with thrombolytics for acute stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on 2 cohort studies
    • retrospective cohort study
      • 23,437 patients with ischemic stroke and baseline INR ≤ 1.7 received IV t-PA
      • 7.7% receiving warfarin prior to admission
      • no significant differences in symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, life-threatening or serious systemic hemorrhage, or in-hospital mortality comparing preadmission warfarin use to no warfarin use
      • Reference - JAMA 2012 Jun 27;307(24):2600 full-text, editorial can be found in JAMA 2012 Jun 27;307(24):2637
    • prospective cohort study
      • 1,739 patients received thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke
      • 7.2% were receiving warfarin prior to admission with INR < 1.7
      • preadmission warfarin associated with reduced risk of poor functional outcomes (odds ratio 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-0.9)
      • preadmission warfarin not significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (adjusted), symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, secondary intracerebral hemorrhage, or gastrointestinal hemorrhage
      • Reference - Stroke 2011 Apr;42(4):1041 full-text

Contraindications

Age

Contraindications Related to Age:
Contraindication Presented as Absolute Contraindication by Presented as Relative Contraindication by Considerations
Age < 18 years
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)

  • European Stroke Organisation (ESO)(6)
  • Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS)(7)

  • Target population is age 18-80 years(1, 3)
  • ESO recommends IV rt-PA may be used in selected patients < 18 years old, but not supported by current European labelling (ESO Level C, Class III)(6)
  • HAS recommends discussion on case-by-case basis with stroke unit neurologist (HAS Professional Agreement), but ACTILYSE® not indicated for patients < 18 years old(7)
  • United States and Canadian product labeling state safety and effectiveness of Activase in pediatric patients have not been established(14, 15)

Age > 80 years
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)
  • American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) - for treatment at 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset(1)
  • American College of Emergency Physicians, American Academy of Neurology (ACEP/AAN) - for treatment at 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset(3)
  • ESO(6)
  • HAS(7)
  • Japan Stroke Society(8)
  • National Stroke Foundation (Australia)(9)



  • United States and Canadian product labeling - advanced age (such as > 75 years old) may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14, 15)
  • Target population is age 18-80 years(1, 3)
  • ESO recommends IV rt-PA may be used in selected patients > 80 years old, but not supported by current European labelling (ESO Level C, Class III)(6)
  • HAS recommends IV thrombolysis may be used for up to 3 hours in patients > 80 years old (HAS Professional Agreement)(7)
  • For treatment at 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset, consider age ≥ 65 years as relative contraindication based on subgroup analysis of ECASS III trial


Abbreviations: rt-PA, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator.

Time since stroke onset

Contraindications Related to Time Since Symptom Onset:
Contraindication Presented as Absolute Contraindication by Presented as Relative Contraindication by Considerations
Time since stroke onset > 3 hours
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) - based on Actilyse marketing authorization(7)
  • Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) - thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke beyond 3 hours from stroke symptom onset should be restricted to specialized stroke centers with advanced imaging capabilities or as part of a research protocol (CAEP Weak recommendation, Low-quality evidence)(11)
  • Treatment up to 4.5 hours after stroke onset supported in some guidelines
  • Onset time defined as either witnessed onset of symptoms or time last known to be normal if not witnessed(1, 3)
  • United States product labeling states "administer Activase as soon as possible but within 3 hours after onset of symptoms"(14)
Time since stroke onset > 4.5 hours
  • Japan Stroke Society(8)
  • South African Stroke Society(10)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)
 
  • No other guidelines explicitly list time > 4.5 hours as contraindicated, but no source suggests any indication > 4.5 hours after stroke onset
  • Onset time defined as either witnessed onset of symptoms or time last known to be normal if not witnessed(1, 3)
Time of stroke onset uncertain (such as patients awaking from sleep)
  • HAS - based on Actilyse marketing authorization(7)
  • National Stroke Foundation (Australia)(9)
  • South African Stroke Society(10)
  • United Kingdom product labeling - if potentially > 4.5 hours(16)

 
  • Most guidelines use "time last known to be well" as time to use as onset when true time of stroke onset uncertain
 

Intracranial hemorrhage

Contraindications Related to Evidence or Symptoms of Intracranial Hemorrhage:
ContraindicationPresented as Absolute Contraindication by Presented as Relative Contraindication by Considerations
Evidence of intracranial hemorrhage on CT scan or MRI
  • American College of Emergency Physicians, American Academy of Neurology (ACEP/AAN)(3)
  • Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS)(7)
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)(4)
  • South African Stroke Society(10)
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations(13)
  • United States product labeling(14)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)


  
Symptoms suggestive of subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA)(1)
  • ACEP/AAN(3)
  • HAS(7)
  • Japan Stroke Society(8)
  • National Stroke Foundation (Australia)(9)
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations(13)
  • United States product labeling - subarachnoid hemorrhage listed as contraindication(14)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)




 
  • Considered absolute contraindication even if computed tomography scan is normal(7, 9, 16)
Abbreviations: CT, computed tomography; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging.

Stroke severity

Contraindications Related to Stroke Severity:
Contraindication Presented as Absolute Contraindication by Presented as Relative Contraindication by Considerations
Major early infarct signs on baseline CT scan, defined as substantial mass effect or well-defined hypodensity involving > one-third of middle cerebral artery territory
  • American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA)(1)
  • American College of Chest Physicians(2)
  • Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS)(7)
  • Japan Stroke Society (JSS)(8)
  • South African Stroke Society (SASS)(10)
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations - CT showing early signs of extensive infarction, represented by score of < 5 on Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS), or MRI showing infarct volume > 150 cc on diffusion-weighted imaging(13)
  • United Kingdom product labeling - severe stroke by appropriate imaging techniques(16)



  • American College of Emergency Physicians, American Academy of Neurology (ACEP/AAN) - for treatment at 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset(3)
  • Chinese Stroke Therapy Expert Panel (CSTEP)(5)
  • National Stroke Foundation (NSF) (Australia)(9)

NIHSS score ≥ 26
  • CSTEP(5)
  • HAS(7)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)


  • AHA/ASA - for treatment at 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset(1)
  • ACEP/AAN - for treatment at 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset(3)
  • NSF (Australia)(9)
  • JSS(8)

  • NIHSS score > 22 is relative contraindication per National Stroke Foundation (Australia)(9)
Coma or severe obtundation with fixed eye deviation and complete hemiplegia
  • NSF (Australia)(9)
  
Seizure at onset of stroke
  • ACEP/AAN(3)
  • HAS(7)
  • NSF (Australia)(9)
  • SASS - with postictal residual neurological impairment without certainty of being due to stroke(10)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)



  • JSS(8)
  • AHA/ASA - with postictal (that is, not related to stroke) residual neurological impairments(1)

  • AHA/ASA and European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guidelines consider IV rt-PA reasonable in patients with seizure at time of onset of stroke if evidence suggests that residual impairments are secondary to stroke and not a postictal phenomenon (AHA/ASA Class IIa, Level C; ESO Good Clinical Practice, Class IV)(1, 6)
  • JSS considers convulsion a relative contraindication but recommends patients should be ineligible if suspected of developing epilepsy based on medical history(8)
Rapidly improving (clearing spontaneously) or only minor symptoms or neurologic signs
  • ACEP/AAN(3)
  • HAS(7)
  • NSF (Australia)(9)
  • SASS(10)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)
  • AHA/ASA(1)
  • JSS(8)
  • Canadian product labeling - treatment of patients with minor neurological deficit or with rapidly improving symptoms is not recommended(15)
Abbreviations: cc, cubic centimeters; CT, computed tomography; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; rt-PA, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator; t-PA, tissue plasminogen activator.

Abnormal lab tests

Contraindications Related to Abnormal Lab Tests:
Contraindication Presented as Absolute Contraindication by Presented as Relative Contraindication by Considerations
Platelet count < 100,000/mm3
  • American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA)(1)
  • American College of Emergency Physicians, American Academy of Neurology (ACEP/AAN)(3)
  • Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS)(7)
  • Japan Stroke Society (JSS)(8)
  • National Stroke Foundation (NSF) (Australia)(9)
  • South African Stroke Society (SASS)(10)
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations(13)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)






  • United States product labeling lists bleeding diathesis as contraindication but no longer specifically lists PT or aPTT levels in contraindication list(14)
  • In patients without thrombocytopenia, rt-PA may be started before test results are known but should be discontinued if platelet count < 100,000/mm3(1)
Blood glucose levels < 50 mg/dL (2.8 mmol/L)
  • AHA/ASA(1)
  • ACEP/AAN(3)
  • HAS(7)
  • JSS(8)
  • NSF (Australia)(9)
  • SASS(10)
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations(13)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)






  
Blood glucose levels > 400 mg/dL (22 mmol/L)
  • ACEP/AAN(3)
  • HAS(7)
  • JSS(8)
  • NSF (Australia)(9)
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations(13)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)




 
  • Indication for thrombolysis should be reassessed in patients with initial blood glucose levels > 198 mg/dL (11 mmol/L), because of increased hemorrhagic risk (HAS Grade C)(7)
PT > 15 seconds or INR > 1.7
  • AHA/ASA(1)
  • ACEP/AAN - INR > 1.6(3)
  • JSS(8)
  • NSF (Australia) - INR > 1.5; concomitant oral anticoagulant is a contraindication(9)
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations(13)
  • South African Stroke Society - INR > 1.5(10)
  • Canadian product labeling - current use of oral anticoagulants is also a contraindication(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling - receiving effective oral anticoagulant is a contraindication(16)
  • United States product labeling lists bleeding diathesis as contraindication but no longer specifically lists PT or aPTT levels in contraindication list(14)
  • Likely elevated in patients taking oral vitamin K antagonists
  • In patients without recent use of anticoagulants, rt-PA may be started before test results known but should be discontinued if INR > 1.7 or PT is abnormally elevated by local laboratory standards(1, 14)
  • For treatment at 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset, AHA/ASA and ACEP/AAN consider oral anticoagulant use a relative contraindication, regardless of INR(1, 3)
  • United States and Canadian product labeling - current use of oral anticoagulants (such as warfarin sodium) may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14, 15)
Elevated aPTT
  • AHA/ASA(1)
  • ACEP/AAN(3)
  • HAS(7)
  • JSS - > 1.5 times baseline value or about 40 seconds(8)
  • NSF (Australia)(9)
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations(13)
  • SASS(10)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)
  • United States product labeling lists bleeding diathesis as contraindication but no longer specifically lists PT or aPTT levels in contraindication list(14)
  • Used for patients who received heparin within prior 48 hours
  • In patients without recent use of anticoagulants, rt-PA may be started before test results known but should be discontinued if aPTT is elevated(14)
Elevated laboratory tests used for detecting altered coagulation profile on direct thrombin inhibitors or direct factor Xa inhibitors
  • AHA/ASA(1)
  • NSF (Australia) - concomitant oral anticoagulant is a contraindication(9)
  • United Kingdom product labeling - receiving effective oral anticoagulant is a contraindication(16)
  • JSS - efficacy and safety of IV alteplase in patients taking antifactor Xa agents or dabigatran have not been established(8)
  • Tests may include PT/INR, aPTT, ECT, TT, or appropriate factor Xa activity assay(1)
  • t-PA use may be considered in patients taking direct thrombin inhibitors or direct factor Xa inhibitors if normal laboratory tests in patient (with normal renal function) who has not had dose for > 2 days(1)
Abbreviations: aPTT, activated partial thromboplastin time; ECT, ecarin clotting time; PT, prothrombin time; rt-PA, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator; TT, thrombin time.

Recent procedures or surgery

Contraindications Related to Recent Medical Procedures or Surgery:
Contraindication Presented as Absolute Contraindication by Presented as Relative Contraindication by Considerations
Arterial puncture at noncompressible site in prior 7 days
  • American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA)(1)
  • American College of Emergency Physicians, American Academy of Neurology (ACEP/AAN)(3)
  • Haute Autorité de Sante (HAS)(7)
  • South African Stroke Society (SASS)(10)
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations(13)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)



  • National Stroke Foundation (NSF) (Australia)(9)
  • United States product labeling - recent puncture of noncompressible vessels may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14)
Venous puncture at noncompressible site in prior 7 days
  • HAS(7)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)
 
  • Examples include subclavian and jugular vein punctures
  • United States and Canadian product labeling - recent puncture of noncompressible vessels may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14, 15)
Major surgery within prior 14 days
  • ACEP/AAN(3)
  • HAS - within past 3 months(7)
  • Japan Stroke Society (JSS)(8)
  • SASS(10)
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations(13)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling - in past 3 months(16)

  • AHA/ASA(1)
  • NSF (Australia) - within past 30 days(9)




  • United States product labeling - recent major surgery (such as coronary artery bypass graft, obstetrical delivery) may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14)


Recent intracranial or spinal surgery
  • AHA/ASA(1)
  • ACEP/AAN(3)
  • HAS(7)
  • JSS - within last 3 months(8)
  • United States product labeling - within past 3 months(14)
  • Canadian product labeling - within past 3 months(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)


  
Recent lumbar puncture 
  • ACEP/AAN(3)
 
Recent biopsy 
  • Japan Stroke Society - within last 10 days(8)
  • NSF (Australia) - within last 30 days with parenchymal organ biopsy(9)


  • United States and Canadian product labeling - recent organ biopsy may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits; Canadian product labeling defines recent as within past 10 days(14, 15)
Recent (< 10 days) traumatic external heart massage
  • HAS(7)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)
  
 

Recent trauma or cardiovascular event

Contraindications Related to Recent Medical Events:
Contraindication Presented as Absolute Contraindication by Presented as Relative Contraindication by Considerations
Prior stroke within past 3 months
  • American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA)(1)
  • American College of Emergency Physicians, American Academy of Neurology (ACEP/AAN)(3)
  • Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS)(7)
  • South African Stroke Society(10)
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations(13)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)



  • National Stroke Foundation (Australia)(9)
  • Japan Stroke Society considers stroke within last 1 month (excluding transient ischemic attack) an absolute contraindication, and stroke beyond 1 month of onset (especially patients with concurrent diabetes) a relative contraindication(8)
  • United States product labeling - cerebrovascular disease may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14)
  • Canadian product labeling - clinical evidence or history of transient ischemic attacks may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(15)
Myocardial infarction within past 3 months
  • South African Stroke Society(10)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • AHA/ASA(1)
  • ACEP/AAN(3)
  • Japan Stroke Society(8)


  • National Stroke Foundation (Australia) considers suspected recent (within 30 days) myocardial infarction a relative contraindication(9)
Serious trauma within prior 14 days
  • ACEP/AAN(3)
  • HAS - in past 3 months(7)
  • Japan Stroke Society(8)
  • South African Stroke Society - evidence of acute trauma on exam(10)
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations - spinal trauma in past 3 months(13)
  • United Kingdom product labeling - in past 3 months(16)


  • AHA/ASA(1)
  • National Stroke Foundation (Australia) - within 30 days with internal injuries or ulcerative wounds(9)



  • United States and Canadian product labeling - recent trauma may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits; Canadian product labeling defines recent as within past 10 days(14, 15)

Significant head trauma within past 3 months
  • AHA/ASA(1)
  • ACEP/AAN(3)
  • Japan Stroke Society(8)
  • South African Stroke Society(10)
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations(13)
  • United States product labeling(14)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)

  • National Stroke Foundation (Australia)(9)
 
 

Comorbidities

Contraindications Related to Comorbidities:
Contraindication Presented as Absolute Contraindication by Presented as Relative Contraindication by Considerations
Neoplasm with increased bleeding risk
  • Haute Autorité de Santé(7)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)
  
Intracranial neoplasm
  • American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA)(1)
  • Haute Autorité de Santé(7)
  • United States product labeling - stated as "Presence of intracranial conditions that may increase the risk of bleeding (e.g. some neoplasms, arteriovenous malformations, or aneurysms)"(14)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)

  • Japan Stroke Society(8)
  • National Stroke Foundation (Australia)(9)

 
Acute pancreatitis
  • Haute Autorité de Santé(7)
  • Japan Stroke Society(8)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)

  
Bacterial endocarditis
  • Haute Autorité de Santé(7)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)

  • Japan Stroke Society(8)
  • United States and Canadian product labeling - subacute bacterial endocarditis may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14, 15)
Pericarditis
  • Haute Autorité de Santé(7)
  • Canadian product labeling - clinical presentation associated with postmyocardial infarction pericarditis(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)
  • American College of Emergency Physicians, American Academy of Neurology (ACEP/AAN) - recent pericarditis considered relative contraindication(3)
  • United States and Canadian product labeling - acute pericarditis may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14, 15)
Systolic blood pressure ≥ 185 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 110 mm Hg
  • AHA/ASA(1)
  • ACEP/AAN(3)
  • Chinese Stroke Therapy Expert Panel(5)
  • Haute Autorité de Santé - or IV drugs needed to reduce blood pressure to these limits(7)
  • Haute Autorité de Santé - stated as severe uncontrolled arterial hypertension(7)
  • Japan Stroke Society - despite antihypertensive therapy(8)
  • National Stroke Foundation (Australia) - on repeated measures(9)
  • South African Stroke Society (SASS)(10)
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations(13)
  • United States product labeling - stated as current severe uncontrolled hypertension(14)
  • Canadian product labeling - or aggressive treatment needed to reduce blood pressure to these limits(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling - or IV drugs needed to reduce blood pressure to these limits, or severe uncontrolled arterial hypertension(16)






 
  • IV rt-PA is reasonable in patients whose blood pressure can be lowered safely to < 185/110 mm Hg with antihypertensive agents, with physician assessing stability of blood pressure before starting rt-PA (AHA/ASA Class I, Level B)(1)
  • European Stroke Organisation (ESO) recommends blood pressures of ≥ 185/110 mm Hg are lowered before thrombolysis (ESO Good Clinical Practice, Class IV)(6)
  • SASS states if blood pressure can be lowered safely, the patient may be eligible, but blood pressure must be assessed for stability before starting rt-PA and some patients with markedly elevated blood pressure cannot be managed adequately and still meet the 3-hour requirement(10)
  • United States and Canadian product labeling - systolic blood pressure ≥ 175 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 110 mm Hg may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14, 15)
  • Canadian product labeling - history or clinical evidence of hypertensive disease in patients > 70 years old may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(15)





Severe liver disease including hepatic failure, cirrhosis, portal hypertension (esophageal varices), and active hepatitis
  • Haute Autorité de Santé(7)
  • Japan Stroke Society(8)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)

 
  • United States and Canadian product labeling - significant liver dysfunction (such as prolonged prothrombin time) may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14, 15)
Documented ulcerative gastrointestinal disease during last 3 months
  • Haute Autorité de Santé(7)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)
  • Japan Stroke Society - gastrointestinal ulcer, diverticulitis, colitis(8)
 
Arteriovenous malformation
  • AHA/ASA(1)
  • Haute Autorité de Santé(7)
  • United States product labeling(14)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)

  • Japan Stroke Society(8)
  • National Stroke Foundation (Australia)(9)

 
Aneurysm
  • AHA/ASA(1)
  • Haute Autorité de Santé(7)
  • United States product labeling(14)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)

  • Japan Stroke Society - thoracic aortic aneurysm, cerebral aneurysm(8)
 
Moyamoya disease 
  • Japan Stroke Society(8)
 
Poorly controlled diabetes 
  • Japan Stroke Society(8)
 
History of prior stroke and concomitant diabetes
  • Haute Autorité de Santé(7)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)
  • AHA/ASA - for treatment at 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset(1)
  • ACEP/AAN - for treatment at 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset(3)
 
Significant renal disorder 
  • Japan Stroke Society(8)
  • United States and Canadian product labeling - hemostatic defects (including those secondary to severe hepatic or renal disease) may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14, 15)
Active tuberculosis 
  • Japan Stroke Society(8)
 
Any history of central nervous system damage (such as neoplasm, aneurysm, intracranial or spinal surgery)
  • Haute Autorité de Santé(7)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)
  
Concomitant serious advanced or terminal illness, or any other condition that would pose a risk to treatment
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations(13)
  • National Stroke Foundation (Australia)(9)
  • United States and Canadian product labeling - any other condition in which bleeding constitutes a significant hazard or would be particularly difficult to manage because of its location should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14, 15)
Abbreviation: rt-PA, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator.

History of or current bleeding

Contraindications Related to Current or Recent Bleeding:
Contraindication Presented as Absolute Contraindication by Presented as Relative Contraindication by Considerations
Manifest or recent severe or dangerous bleeding
  • Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS)(7)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)
  
Significant bleeding disorder at present or within past 6 months
  • HAS(7)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)
  
Active internal bleeding
  • American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA)(1)
  • Japan Stroke Society (JSS) - concurrent hemorrhage (such as intracranial, gastrointestinal, urinary tract, retroperitoneal, or hemoptysis)(8)
  • South African Stroke Society (SASS)(10)
  • United States product labeling(14)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)

  
Concurrent acute aortic dissection
  • JSS(8)
  
Gastrointestinal or urinary tract bleeding/hemorrhage within prior 21 days
  • American College of Emergency Physicians, American Academy of Neurology (ACEP/AAN)(3)
  • JSS(8)
  • SASS(10)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)


  • AHA/ASA(1)
  • National Stroke Foundation (NSF) (Australia)(9)
  • NSF (Australia) considers gastrointestinal or urinary tract hemorrhage within last 30 days or any active or recent hemorrhage that would increase risk of unmanageable bleeding as relative contraindication(9)
  • United States product labeling - recent gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14)
Known hereditary or acquired hemorrhagic diathesis
  • HAS(7)
  • National Stroke Foundation (Australia)(9)
  • United States product labeling(14)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)



  • ACEP/AAN(3)
 
History of intracranial hemorrhage
  • AHA/ASA(1)
  • ACEP/AAN(3)
  • Haute Autorité de Santé(7)
  • Japan Stroke Society - nontraumatic(8)
  • South African Stroke Society(10)
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations - in previous 6 months(13)
  • Canadian product labeling(15)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)




  • National Stroke Foundation (Australia)(9)
  • United States product labeling - recent intracranial hemorrhage may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefit(14)
Diabetic hemorrhagic retinopathy/hemorrhagic ophthalmic conditions 
  • Japan Stroke Society(8)
  • United States and Canadian product labeling - diabetic hemorrhagic retinopathy, or other hemorrhagic ophthalmic conditions may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14, 15)
 

Female-specific

Contraindications Specific to Women:
Contraindication Presented as Absolute Contraindication by Presented as Relative Contraindication by Considerations
Pregnancy 
  • American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA)(1)
  • American College of Emergency Physicians, American Academy of Neurology (ACEP/AAN)(3)

  • United States and Canadian product labeling - pregnancy may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14, 15)
Delivery or early postpartum period
  • Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS)(7)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)
  • ACEP/AAN(3)
  • Japan Stroke Society (JSS)(8)


  • Delivery within past 10 days in Japanese guideline(8)
  • United States and Canadian product labeling - recent obstetrical delivery may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits; Canadian product labeling defines recent as within past 10 days(14, 15)
Abortion or premature labor within last 10 days 
  • JSS(8)
 
Menstruation 
  • JSS(8)
 
 

Other contraindications

Other Contraindications:
Contraindication Presented as Absolute Contraindication by Presented as Relative Contraindication by Considerations
Hypersensitivity to alteplase
  • Haute Autorité de Santé(7)
  • Japan Stroke Society(8)
  • United Kingdom product labeling(16)

  
Other hypersensitivity or allergy
  • Known hypersensitivity to gentamicin (trace residue from manufacturing process), arginine, phosphoric acid (dilute), or polysorbate 80, per United Kingdom product labeling(16)
  • Allergy to proteins, per Japan Stroke Society(8)
 
High likelihood or known presence of left heart thrombus  
  • United States and Canadian product labeling - high likelihood of left heart thrombus (such as mitral stenosis with atrial fibrillation, or known thrombus) may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14, 15)
Septic thrombophlebitis or occluded arteriovenous cannula at seriously infected site  
  • United States and Canadian product labeling - may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14, 15)
Patient or family members do not understand potential risks and benefits
  • South African Stroke Society (SASS)(10)
  
Stroke symptoms due to another nonischemic acute neurological condition such as seizure with postictal Todd paralysis or focal neurological signs due to severe hypo- or hyperglycemia
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations(13)
  
Lack of adequate support to manage complications of thrombolytics 
  • Thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke beyond 3 hours from stroke symptom onset should be restricted to specialized stroke centers with advanced imaging capabilities or as part of a research protocol (CAEP Weak recommendation, Low-quality evidence)(11)
  • With IV fibrinolytic therapy for acute stroke, physicians should be aware of and prepared to emergently treat potential side effects, including bleeding and angioedema (which may cause partial airway obstruction) (AHA/ASA Class I, Level B)(1)
  • Canadian product labeling - Activase (alteplase) must be administered in hospital setting where appropriate diagnostic and monitoring techniques are readily available(15)
  • United States product labeling - treatment should be limited to facilities that can provide appropriate evaluation and management of intracranial hemorrhage(14)
 

IV Alteplase 0-3 Hours After Stroke

Dosing

  • standard dosing is alteplase 0.9 mg/kg (maximum dose 90 mg) IV over 60 minutes with 10% of dose given as bolus over 1 minute
  • dose in Japan is 0.6 mg/kg (JSS Grade A, Level IIa)(8)

Recommendations (0-3 hours)

Groups with strong recommendation ("is recommended" or highest rating) for use

Groups with weak recommendation ("is suggested" or less than highest rating) for use

Groups with statements that t-PA is controversial at all time frames and should not be considered standard of care

  • American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM) (AAEM 2002 Jan 9)
  • Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) (ACEM 2014 Mar PDF)
  • Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (currently posted policy) (CJEM 2001 Jan;3(1):8 full-text)
  • New Zealand Faculty of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) (NZ Faculty of ACEM 2013 Jun PDF)
    • subsequent combined consensus statement between this group and National Stroke Network Leadership Group (representing stroke physicians and neurologists leading district health board stroke services) reports
      • "Stroke thrombolysis with intravenous alteplase is applicable only to a minority of stroke patients and should be seen as a treatment option indicated in carefully selected stroke patients."
      • "The strongest evidence for benefit of stroke thrombolysis is for patients treated within 3 hours of stroke onset. Emergency physicians, neurologists, and stroke physicians should work collaboratively to minimise treatment delays."
      • Reference - N Z Med J 2014 Apr 11;127(1392):113

Efficacy and safety (0-3 hours)

Efficacy and safety overview (0-3 hours)

  • t-PA given within 3 hours of acute ischemic stroke may increase functional independence without affecting overall mortality at 3-6 months, but associated with increased risk for symptomatic (and fatal) intracranial hemorrhage within 7 days (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on systematic reviews of randomized trials with heterogeneity and methodologic limitations
    • consistent results reported across
      • 2014 Cochrane review analyses of 7 trials with about 1,800 patients (limited by heterogeneity and trials with methodologic limitations)
      • 1995 NINDS trial with 624 patients (limited by allocation concealment not stated and baseline differences favoring tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA] in 91-180 minutes subgroup)
      • 2012 IST-3 trial with subgroup of 849 patients randomized within 3 hours of stroke onset (limited by lack of blinding)
      • 2010 individual patient data meta-analysis of 8 randomized trials (not including IST-3 trial) with 930 patients treated within 3 hours of stroke onset
      • 2014 individual patient data meta-analysis of 9 randomized trials (including IST-3 trial) with 1,549 patients treated within 3 hours of stroke onset
  • estimated effects of using t-PA within 3 hours, based on NINDS trial
    Effect of t-PA at 0-3 Hours*:
    Outcome Likelihood with PlaceboLikelihood with t-PA
    Good functional outcome (mRS score 0-1) at 3 months26.5%42.5% (NNT 7)
    Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (NINDS definition) at 36 hours0.6%6.4% (NNH 17)
    Mortality at 3 months21%17% (not significant)
    Abbreviations: mRS, modified Rankin Scale; NINDS, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; t-PA, tissue plasminogen activator.

    * based on NINDS trial

2014 Cochrane review (0-3 hours)

  • recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) given within 3 hours of acute ischemic stroke may increase functional independence without affecting overall mortality, but associated with increased risk for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on Cochrane review limited by heterogeneity and trials with methodologic limitations
    • systematic review of 27 randomized trials comparing thrombolytic agents vs. control in 10,187 patients with acute ischemic stroke
    • thrombolytic agents included rt-PA (70% of patients), urokinase, recombinant prourokinase, streptokinase, and desmoteplase
    • control group included placebo, no treatment, or aspirin
    • 23 trials evaluated IV thrombolytic agents, 4 trials evaluated intra-arterial thrombolytic agents
    • IV rt-PA evaluated in 12 trials with 7,012 patients
    • in analyses of IV rt-PA given via randomized assignment 0-3 hours after stroke onset
      • decreased death or dependency (odds ratio [OR] 0.65, 95% CI 0.54-0.8) in analysis of 6 trials with 1,779 patients
      • no significant difference in overall mortality (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.73-1.13) in analysis of 7 trials with 1,806 patients
      • increased symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (OR 4.25, 95% CI 2.53-7.16) in analysis of 5 trials with 1,155 patients
      • these analyses largely determined by IST-3 trial which was unblinded and NINDS trial which had allocation concealment not stated and baseline differences
      • analyses of rt-PA given within 3 hours (regardless of time randomization) had consistent results
    • Reference - Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Jul 29;(7):CD000213
    • comparing IV rt-PA vs. control in patients treated within 3 hours
      • favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1) in 31.6% vs. 22.9% (odds ratio [OR] 1.61, 95% CI 1.3-1.99)
      • favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) in 40.7% vs. 31.7% (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.26-1.86)
      • Reference - subgroup reporting of Cochrane review (Lancet 2012 Jun 23;379(9834):2364 full-text)
    • DynaMed commentary -- efficacy data reporting outcomes for patients treated from 0 to 6 hours after stroke onset is no longer reported in DynaMed because effect on time from symptom onset to t-PA administration appears to highly influence the efficacy results such that conclusions combining data from 0 to 3 hours and 3 to 6 hours is not valid

1995 NINDS trial (0-3 hours)

  • t-PA within 3 hours of ischemic stroke onset may reduce disability at 3 months but increases rate of symptomatic and fatal intracerebral hemorrhage (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on randomized trial with allocation concealment not stated and with baseline differences (NINDS trial)
    • considerable inclusion and exclusion criteria
      • inclusion criteria
        • ischemic stroke with clearly defined time of onset
        • t-PA (or placebo) given within 180 minutes
        • no evidence of hemorrhage on computed tomography (CT) scan
      • exclusion criteria
        • stroke or serious head trauma within preceding 3 months
        • major surgery within 14 days
        • history of intracranial hemorrhage
        • systolic blood pressure > 185 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure > 110 mm Hg
        • gastrointestinal or urinary tract hemorrhage within 21 days
        • arterial puncture at noncompressible site within 7 days
        • seizure at onset of stroke
        • anticoagulants within 48 hours
        • elevated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time > 15 seconds or platelet count < 100,000/mm3
        • glucose < 50 mg/dL (2.7 mmol/L) or > 400 mg/dL (22.2 mmol/L)
    • 624 patients randomized to t-PA 0.9 mg/kg IV vs. placebo within 3 hours of onset of acute ischemic stroke
      • t-PA dosing
        • alteplase (Activase), a recombinant t-PA, 0.9 mg/kg (up to 90 mg)
        • 10% given as IV bolus, then 90% as constant infusion over 60 minutes
      • other protocol considerations
        • no anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents for 24 hours after treatment
        • blood pressure maintained within prespecified values
    • comparing t-PA vs. placebo in all 624 patients
      • proportion of patients with improvement in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) stroke severity score at 3 months 47% vs. 39% (p = 0.06)
      • favorable outcome (≤ 1) in NIHSS stroke severity score in 34% vs. 20.5% (p ≤ 0.008, NNT 8)
      • favorable outcome (≤ 1) in modified Rankin Scale in 42.5% vs. 26.5% (p ≤ 0.035, NNT 7)
      • favorable outcome (95-100) in Barthel index in 52% vs. 38% (p ≤ 0.026, NNT 8)
      • any intracranial hemorrhage within 36 hours in 10.9% vs. 3.5% (NNH 13)
      • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 36 hours in 6.4% vs. 0.6% (p < 0.001, NNH 17)
      • fatal intracranial hemorrhage within 36 hours in 2.9% vs. 0.3% (NNH 38)
      • mortality at 3 months 17% vs. 21% (not significant)
    • comparing t-PA vs. placebo in 302 patients treated within 90 minutes after stroke onset at 3 months
      • proportion of patients with improvement in NIHSS stroke severity score 55% vs. 42% (p = 0.02, NNT 8)
      • favorable outcome (≤ 1) in NIHSS stroke severity score in 34% vs. 20% (p = 0.008, NNT 8)
      • favorable outcome (≤ 1) in modified Rankin Scale in 40% vs. 28% (p = 0.035, NNT 9)
      • favorable outcome (95-100) in Barthel index in 53% vs. 38% (p = 0.01, NNT 7)
    • comparing t-PA vs. placebo in 322 patients treated 91-180 minutes after stroke onset at 3 months
      • proportion of patients with improvement in NIHSS stroke severity score 39% vs. 37% (not significant)
      • favorable outcome (≤ 1) in NIHSS stroke severity score in 34% vs. 21% (p = 0.008, NNT 8)
      • favorable outcome (≤ 1) in modified Rankin Scale in 45% vs. 25% (p < 0.001, NNT 5)
      • favorable outcome (95-100) in Barthel index in 51% vs. 38% (p = 0.026, NNT 8)
    • higher rates of favorable outcome at 3 months with t-PA than with placebo appeared consistent among subgroups of
      • 81 patients with small-vessel occlusive stroke
      • 252 patients with large-vessel occlusive stroke
      • 273 patients with cardioembolic stroke
    • Reference - NINDS trial (N Engl J Med 1995 Dec 14;333(24):1581 full-text), editorial can be found in N Engl J Med 1995 Dec 14;333(24):1632, commentary can be found in N Engl J Med 1996 May 23;334(21):1405, ACP J Club 1996 May-Jun;124(3):58, J Fam Pract 1996 May;42(5):458
    • baseline differences
      • more patients in t-PA group had been receiving aspirin prior to stroke event and more patients in t-PA group had less severe, small-vessel occlusions but statistical analysis shows benefit of t-PA upon accounting for these variables (letters can be found in N Engl J Med 1996 May 23;334(21):1405)
      • baseline differences favored t-PA group within subgroup of patients treated within 91-180 minutes of stroke onset, with most patients with mild stroke at baseline in t-PA group and most patients with worse stroke at baseline in placebo group (BMJ 2004 Oct 9;329(7470):820 full-text)
    • using modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 (no or slight disability but not requiring assistance for activities of daily living) at 90 days, this outcome was achieved by 157 of 312 patients with t-PA (50.3%) vs. 120 of 312 patients with placebo (38.5%) (adjusted odds ratio 1.62, 95% CI 1.18-2.23, NNT 9) (Stroke 2007 Dec;38(12):3205 full-text)
  • noted that CT must be examined carefully to exclude any signs of hemispheric brain ischemia, which may increase risk for deterioration after thrombolytic therapy (N Engl J Med 1995 Dec 14;333(24):1632)
  • reanalysis of NINDS trial data reported to support benefits with t-PA (Stroke 2004 Oct;35(10):2418 full-text), commentary can be found in Stroke 2005 Feb;36(2):230 full-text, Stroke 2005 Mar;36(3):529 full-text, but criticized for many reasons including inadequate statistical power (BMJ 2004 Oct 9;329(7470):820)
  • 1-year outcome suggests increased likelihood of minimal or no disability for patients treated with t-PA within 3 hours (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on NINDS trial
    • favorable outcome defined as minimal or no disability on several scales
    • comparing t-PA vs. placebo at 12 months
      • favorable outcome using Barthel index in 50% vs. 38% (p = 0.005, NNT 9)
      • favorable outcome using modified Rankin Scale in 41% vs. 28% (p = 0.001, NNT 8)
      • favorable outcome using Glasgow Outcome scale in 43% vs. 32% (p = 0.006, NNT 9)
      • mortality 24% vs. 28% (not significant)
    • Reference - N Engl J Med 1999 Jun 10;340(23):1781 full-text, commentary can be found in N Engl J Med 1999 Oct 14;341(16):1240
    • DynaMed commentary -- authors of article received financial support from drug manufacturer

2012 IST-3 trial (0-3 hours)

  • rt-PA given within 3 hours after stroke onset may increase likelihood of independent functioning but increase risk of symptomatic hemorrhage at 7 days, with no overall effect on death at 6 months (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on subgroup analyses of randomized trial without blinding (IST-3 trial)
    • 3,035 adults with acute ischemic stroke randomized to rt-PA 0.9 mg/kg IV vs. usual care within 6 hours of symptom onset
    • 1,617 patients (53%) were > 80 years old
    • IST-3 protocol designed to enroll patients with "uncertainty" regarding use of rt-PA, so most patients < 80 years old meeting guideline-supported criteria for rt-PA within 3 hours of stroke onset were given rt-PA and not enrolled in IST-3 trial
    • time from symptom onset to randomization was
      • < 3 hours in 849 patients (28%)
      • 3-4.5 hours in 1,177 patients (39%)
      • 4.5-6 hours in 1,007 patients (33%)
    • comparing rt-PA vs. usual care in subgroup of patients randomized within 3 hours of symptom onset
      • independent functioning (measured by Oxford Handicap Score 0-2) at 6 months in 30.6% vs. 22.7% (adjusted odds ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.03-2.62, NNT 13)
      • no other outcomes reported in this subgroup
    • comparing rt-PA vs. usual care in overall cohort
      • fatal or nonfatal symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at 7 days in 7% vs. 1% (p < 0.0001, NNH 16)
      • death at 7 days in 11% vs. 7% (p = 0.001, NNH 25)
      • death at 6 months in 27% vs. 27% (not significant)
    • Reference - IST-3 trial (Lancet 2012 Jun 23;379(9834):2352 full-text), correction can be found in Lancet 2012 Aug 25;380(9843):730, editorial can be found in Lancet 2012 Jun 23;379(9834):2320
    • comparing rt-PA vs. usual care in subgroup of 849 patients randomized within 3 hours of symptom onset
      • increased likelihood of any improvement in Oxford Handicap Score (adjusted ordinal analysis across entire scale) (adjusted odds ratio 1.5, 99% CI 1.03-2.19)
      • death within 7 days in 11% vs. 9% (adjusted odds ratio 1.43, 99% CI 0.77-2.66)
      • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 7 days in 7% vs. 1% (adjusted odds ratio 8.8, 99% CI 2.11-35.1, NNH 16)
      • Reference - Stroke 2015 Mar;46(3):746
  • 18-month outcomes reported to support increase in independent functioning with rt-PA (35% vs. 31.4%, p = 0.024, NNT 28) and no significant effect on mortality (34.9% vs. 35.1%), based on subgroup of 2,348 patients from IST-3 trial who completed 18-month follow-up (Lancet Neurol 2013 Aug;12(8):768 full-text), but results not reported by subgroups of time to randomization (DynaMed commentary)
  • reduced risk of poor functional outcomes with rt-PA limited to high-risk patients in post hoc subgroup analysis of IST-3 trial (Stroke 2014 Apr;45(4):1000)

2010 individual patient data meta-analysis (0-3 hours)

  • t-PA given within 3 hours of stroke onset may increase likelihood of functional independence and risk for intracerebral hemorrhage without increasing mortality (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on meta-analysis of randomized trials with differences in inclusion criteria
    • meta-analysis of individual patient data from 3,670 patients who had treatment started within 6 hours of stroke onset in 8 randomized placebo-controlled trials of t-PA
    • trials individually had inconsistent results for functional outcome
      • 3 trials independently found significant improvement in functional outcome with t-PA; these 3 trials included patients with minor stroke
        • NINDS 1 + 2 trials with t-PA given 0-3 hours after stroke onset
        • ECASS III trial with t-PA given 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset
      • 5 trials independently found no improvement in functional outcome with t-PA; these 5 trials excluded patients with minor stroke
        • ECASS trial with t-PA given 0-6 hours after stroke onset
        • ECASS II trial with t-PA given 0-6 hours after stroke onset
        • ATLANTIS A trial with t-PA given 0-6 hours after stroke onset
        • ATLANTIS B trial with t-PA given 0-5 hours after stroke onset (changed to 3-5 hours after NINDS 2 trial published)
        • EPITHET trial with t-PA given 3-6 hours after stroke onset
    • comparing t-PA vs. placebo given at 0-1.5 hours (0-90 minutes) in analysis of 312 patients
      • good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 at 90 days) in 41.6% vs. 29.1% (p = 0.0013, odds ratio 2.55, 95% CI 1.44-4.52) (NNT 5 in adjusted analysis)
      • mortality 18.6% vs. 20.5% (odds ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.41-1.48)
      • intracerebral hemorrhage in 3.1% vs. 0% (odds ratio not evaluable due to 0 events in control group) (NNH 32 in crude analysis)
    • comparing t-PA vs. placebo given at 1.5-3 hours (91-180 minutes) in analysis of 618 patients
      • good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 at 90 days) in 41.9% vs. 28.9% (p = 0.0116, odds ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.12-2.4) (NNT 9 in adjusted analysis)
      • mortality 16.8% vs. 15.6% (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 0.7-1.82)
      • intracerebral hemorrhage in 5.6% vs. 1% (p < 0.0008, odds ratio 8.23, 95% CI 2.39-28.32) (NNH 21 in crude analysis)
    • Reference - Lancet 2010 May 15;375(9727):1695, editorial can be found in Lancet 2010 May 15;375(9727):1667

2014 individual patient data meta-analysis (0-3 hours)

  • t-PA given within 3 hours after stroke onset may increase risk for fatal intracranial hemorrhage within 7 days but may not affect 90-day mortality (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on updated meta-analysis of individual patient data with wide confidence intervals
    • individual patient data meta-analysis of 9 randomized trials with 6,756 patients randomized to t-PA vs. no t-PA within 6 hours of stroke onset (same 8 trials in meta-analysis reported above [Lancet 2010 May 15] plus IST-3 trial reported above [Lancet 2012 Jun 23])
    • comparing t-PA vs. control in subgroup of 1,549 patients treated within 3 hours after stroke onset
      • fatal intracranial hemorrhage within 7 days in 2.8% vs. 0.3% (adjusted odds ratio 10.86, 95% CI 2.54-46.41)
      • 90-day mortality 22.2% vs. 21.8% (hazard ratio 1, 95% CI 0.81-1.24)
    • Reference - Lancet 2014 Nov 29;384(9958):1929 full-text, protocol for meta-analysis in Int J Stroke 2013 Jun;8(4):278 full-text
    • DynaMed commentary -- functional outcome data not reported here due to uncertainty in validity of this outcome analysis

Effect of time to t-PA on outcomes

  • in patients eligible for IV rt-PA, benefit of therapy is time dependent, and treatment should be started as quickly as possible (within 60 minutes from hospital arrival) (AHA/ASA Class I, Level A)(1)
  • recommended goal of door-to-needle time is < 60 minutes (AHA/ASA Class I, Level A; CSTEP Level III recommendation, Level C evidence; CAEP Strong recommendation, Moderate-quality evidence; CSBPR Evidence Level C)(1, 5, 11, 13)
  • earlier treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator following acute ischemic stroke associated with increased likelihood of favorable outcome in clinical practice (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on retrospective cohort study
    • 84,439 patients (mean age 74 years, 49% female) with acute ischemic stroke in Germany were analyzed
    • 12% received rt-PA within 12 hours of stroke onset and 88% did not
    • favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1) at discharge in 37.7% without rt-PA
    • compared to no rt-PA, likelihood of favorable outcome was increased with rt-PA treatment
      • at < 1.5 hours from stroke onset (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.5, 95% CI 2.1-2.9)
      • at 1.5-3 hours (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.7-2)
      • at 3-4.5 hours (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5)
      • at > 4.5 hours (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI 1-1.6)
    • rt-PA treatment at > 4.5 hours associated with increased risk of death compared to no rt-PA (adjusted odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-1.9)
    • Reference - BMJ 2014 May 30;348:g3429 full-text
  • reduced time to treatment with t-PA associated with decreased hospital mortality and increased discharge to home in patients with acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on retrospective cohort study from 1,395 hospitals participating in Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Program
    • 58,353 patients (mean age 72 years and 50% women) with acute ischemic stroke who received t-PA IV within 4.5 hours of symptom onset were analyzed
    • median time to treatment was 144 minutes with
      • 9.3% within < 90 minutes
      • 77.2% within 91-180 minutes
      • 13.6% within 181-270 minutes
    • median pretreatment National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 11 (assessed in 88%)
    • 33.4% achieved independent ambulation at hospital discharge, 38.6% were discharged to home, 8.8% died in hospital, and 4.9% had intracranial hemorrhage
    • shorter onset to treatment (per 15-minute increment) associated with (in adjusted analyses)
      • increased independent ambulation at discharge (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95% CI 1.03-1.05)
      • increased discharge to home (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.04)
      • decreased in-hospital mortality (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98)
      • decreased symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98)
    • Reference - JAMA 2013 Jun 19;309(23):2480
  • as time from stroke onset to t-PA administration increases, apparent benefit (in terms of increasing likelihood of functional independence) decreases and apparent harm (in terms of increasing mortality and risk for intracerebral hemorrhage) increases (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on meta-analysis of randomized trials with differences in inclusion criteria
    • meta-analysis of individual patient data from 3,670 patients who had treatment started within 6 hours of stroke onset in 8 randomized placebo-controlled trials of t-PA
    • trials individually had inconsistent results for functional outcome
      • 3 trials independently found significant improvement in functional outcome with t-PA
        • NINDS 1 + 2 trials with t-PA given 0-3 hours after stroke onset
        • ECASS III trials with t-PA given 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset
        • all these trials included patients with minor stroke
      • 5 trials independently found no improvement in functional outcome with t-PA; these 5 trials excluded patients with minor stroke
        • ECASS trial with t-PA given 0-6 hours after stroke onset
        • ECASS II trial with t-PA given 0-6 hours after stroke onset
        • ATLANTIS A trial with t-PA given 0-6 hours after stroke onset
        • ATLANTIS B trial with t-PA given 0-5 hours after stroke onset (changed to 3-5 hours after NINDS 2 trial published)
        • EPITHET trial with t-PA given 3-6 hours after stroke onset
    • in analysis of effect of t-PA in relation to time from stroke onset as continuous variable
      • good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 at 90 days)
        • significantly increased with t-PA from 0 to 4.5 hours (0 to 270 minutes)
        • magnitude of increase declined with increasing time from stroke onset
      • mortality significantly increased with t-PA after 4-4.5 hours (240-270 minutes)
      • intracerebral hemorrhage significantly increased at all time points with increasing magnitude as time from stroke onset increased
    • in analysis of effect of t-PA in relation to time from stroke onset as categorical variable
      • comparing t-PA vs. placebo given at 0-1.5 hours (0-90 minutes) in analysis of 312 patients
        • good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 at 90 days) in 41.6% vs. 29.1% (p = 0.0013, odds ratio 2.55, 95% CI 1.44-4.52) (NNT 5 in adjusted analysis)
        • mortality 18.6% vs. 20.5% (odds ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.41-1.48)
        • intracerebral hemorrhage in 3.1% vs. 0% (odds ratio not evaluable due to 0 events in control group) (NNH 32 in crude analysis)
      • comparing t-PA vs. placebo given at 1.5-3 hours (91-180 minutes) in analysis of 618 patients
        • good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 at 90 days) in 41.9% vs. 28.9% (p = 0.0116, odds ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.12-2.4) (NNT 9 in adjusted analysis)
        • mortality 16.8% vs. 15.6% (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 0.7-1.82)
        • intracerebral hemorrhage in 5.6% vs. 1% (p < 0.0008, odds ratio 8.23, 95% CI 2.39-28.32) (NNH 21 in crude analysis)
      • comparing t-PA vs. placebo given at 3-4.5 hours (180-270 minutes) in analysis of 1,620 patients
        • good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 at 90 days) in 44.6% vs. 37.7% (p = 0.0135, odds ratio 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.68) (NNT 15 in adjusted analysis)
        • mortality 11% vs. 10.1% (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 0.87-1.71)
        • intracerebral hemorrhage in 4.3% vs. 1.2% (p < 0.0004, odds ratio 3.61, 95% CI 1.76-7.38) (NNH 32 in crude analysis)
      • comparing t-PA vs. placebo given at 4.5-6 hours (270-360 minutes) in analysis of 1,118 patients
        • good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 at 90 days) in 37.4% vs. 35.6% (p = 0.16, odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 0.92-1.61)
        • mortality 15% vs. 10.2% (p = 0.0501, odds ratio 1.49, 95% CI 1-2.21) (NNH 20 in crude analysis)
        • intracerebral hemorrhage in 6.8% vs. 0.9% (p < 0.0001, odds ratio 4.32, 95% CI 2.84-18.9) (NNH 17 in crude analysis)
    • Reference - Lancet 2010 May 15;375(9727):1695, editorial can be found in Lancet 2010 May 15;375(9727):1667
    • estimated increase of 1.8 days of disability-free life for every 1-minute decrease in time from stroke onset to treatment
      • based on extrapolation of these meta-analysis results to a retrospective cohort of 2,258 patients with stroke treated with IV thrombolytics
      • Reference - Stroke 2014 Apr;45(4):1053

IV Alteplase 3-4.5 Hours After Stroke

Dosing

  • standard dosing is alteplase 0.9 mg/kg (maximum dose 90 mg) IV over 60 minutes with 10% of dose given as bolus over 1 minute
  • dose in Japan is 0.6 mg/kg (JSS Grade A, Level IIa)(8)

Recommendations (3-4.5 hours)

Groups with strong recommendation ("is recommended" or highest rating) for use

Groups with weak recommendation ("is suggested" or less than highest rating) for use

  • American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) (ACCP Grade 2C)(2)
  • American College of Emergency Physicians/American Academy of Neurology (ACEP/AAN) (ACEP/AAN Level B)(3)
  • American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) (ACEP Level B)(12)

Groups with weak recommendation against use

Groups with statements that tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is controversial at all time frames and should not be considered standard of care

  • American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM) (AAEM 2002 Jan 9)
  • Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) (ACEM 2014 Mar PDF)
  • Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (currently posted policy) (CJEM 2001 Jan;3(1):8 full-text)
  • New Zealand Faculty of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) (NZ Faculty of ACEM 2013 Jun PDF)
    • subsequent attempt to reach combined consensus between this group and National Stroke Network Leadership Group (representing stroke physicians and neurologists leading district health board stroke services) reported "This group was unable to reach a consensus about the utility of stroke thrombolysis between 3-4.5 hours of symptom onset" (N Z Med J 2014 Apr 11;127(1392):113)

Efficacy and safety (3-4.5 hours)

Efficacy and safety overview (3-4.5 hours)

  • t-PA given 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset increases risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and risk of fatal intracranial hemorrhage within 7 days (level 1 [likely reliable] evidence) and might increase 90-day mortality (level 2 [mid-level] evidence) while effect on improving functional outcomes is uncertain and inconsistent across trials
    • based on subgroup data from 9 randomized trials
    • effect on functional outcome was inconsistent
      • no effect reported in randomized trial with 613 patients treated 3-5 hours after stroke onset (ATLANTIS) done in 1993-1998
      • benefit (increase in good functional outcome defined as modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 at 90 days, NNT 14) reported in randomized trial with 821 patients treated 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset (ECASS III) done in 2003-2007, but trial had baseline differences in history of prior stroke and results not significant in subgroup of 89% of patients without history of prior stroke
      • harm (decrease in good functional outcome defined as modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 at 6 months, NNH 16) reported in subgroup of 1,177 patients randomized at 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset in IST-3 trial done in 2000-2011, trial was not blinded
      • benefit (increase in good functional outcome defined as modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 at 90 days, NNT 15) reported in 2010 meta-analysis of subgroup data from 1,620 patients in 8 trials (including ECASS III and ATLANTIS but not including IST-3 trial)
      • 2014 meta-analysis including IST-3 trial has uncertain validity for analysis for functional outcome
    • results from all of these analyses consistently found increased risk for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, fatal intracranial hemorrhage, and 7-day mortality where reported
    • results for 90-day mortality were not statistically significant but consistent with clinically important increase in ATLANTIS trial and 2014 meta-analysis
    • best estimates of effects of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) given 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset from analysis of ECASS III, IST-3, Cochrane review, and 2014 individual patient data meta-analysis
      • for 90-day mortality, NNH 49 (95% CI NNH 19 to ∞ to NNT 137)
      • for fatal intracranial hemorrhage, NNH 44 (95% CI 18-136)
      • for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage
        • using parenchymal type 2 definition, NNH 33 (95% CI 14-112)
        • using National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) definition, NNH 22 (95% CI 13-80)
      • for functional outcome, results are inconsistent and do not support a single numerical estimate of effect
      • Reference - BMJ 2015 Mar 17;350:h1075

1999 ATLANTIS trial (3-5 hours)

  • alteplase given 3-5 hours after stroke onset increases rate of symptomatic and fatal intracranial hemorrhage without apparent benefit in functional outcomes (level 1 [likely reliable] evidence)
    • based on randomized trial (ATLANTIS trial)
    • 613 patients aged 18-79 years with acute ischemic stroke treated within 3-5 hours of symptom onset were randomized to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), alteplase 0.9 mg/kg vs. placebo IV over 1 hour
    • comparing t-PA vs. placebo in 547 patients in per-protocol analysis
      • excellent neurologic recovery (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score 0 or 1) at 90 days in 33.8% vs. 32% (p = 0.65)
        • 28% vs. 31% in subgroup of 111 patients treated 3-4 hours after symptom onset (p = 0.84)
        • 34% vs. 33% in subgroup of 436 patients treated 4-5 hours after symptom onset (p = 0.92)
      • mortality at 90 days 11% vs. 6.9% (p = 0.09)
      • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in 7% vs. 1.1% (p < 0.001, NNH 17)
      • fatal intracranial hemorrhage in 3% vs. 0.3% (p < 0.001, NNH 37)
    • similar results in intention-to-treat analysis (which included 63 patients not enrolled in 3- to 5-hour time frame)
    • study funded by drug manufacturer
    • Reference - ATLANTIS trial (JAMA 1999 Dec 1;282(21):2019), editorial can be found in JAMA 1999 Dec 1;282(21):2068, commentary can be found in ACP J Club 2000 Jul-Aug;133(1):18
    • benefit for t-PA found in small subgroup of patients who received t-PA within 3 hours of stroke onset in ATLANTIS trial
      • 61 such patients were found to have both significant benefit and significant risk with t-PA
      • t-PA-treated patients were more likely to have very favorable outcome (score of 1 or less on NIHSS) at 90 days (p = 0.01) even with significant increase in rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage
      • Reference - Stroke 2002 Feb;33(2):493 full-text

2008 ECASS III trial (3-4.5 hours)

  • alteplase given 3-4.5 hours after nonsevere stroke onset might reduce disability at 90 days (NNT 14) (level 2 [mid-level] evidence) but increases risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (NNH 22) (level 1 [likely reliable] evidence)
    • based on randomized trial with confidence intervals for efficacy outcome including small effects without clinical relevance, and baseline differences favoring alteplase group
    • 821 patients aged 18-80 years with acute ischemic stroke randomized to alteplase 0.9 mg/kg (up to 90 mg) vs. placebo IV within 3-4.5 hours of symptom onset
    • exclusion criteria prior to randomization
      • severe stroke (NIHSS score > 25)
      • intracranial hemorrhage on computed tomography (CT)
      • major ischemic infarction on CT
    • CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) done 22-36 hours after treatment and again if clinically indicated
    • 10.3% alteplase and 11.9% placebo patients had protocol violations (did not receive treatment, did not meet age or imaging inclusion criteria, or received treatment outside of time window) but were included in intention-to-treat analysis
    • baseline differences comparing alteplase group vs. placebo group
      • mean NIHSS score 10.7 vs. 11.6 (median 9 vs. 10, p = 0.03)
      • history of prior stroke in 7.7% vs. 14.1% (p = 0.003)
    • 13 (3.1%) alteplase and 10 (2.5%) placebo patients were lost to follow-up but were included in intention-to-treat analysis using worst possible outcome
    • 90-day outcomes comparing alteplase vs. placebo
      • disability score 0-1 on modified Rankin Scale in 52.4% vs. 45.2% (p = 0.04, NNT 14 [95% CI 6-204], odds ratio 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.76)
      • disability score 2-3 on modified Rankin Scale in 23.4% vs. 27.8%
      • disability score 4-5 on modified Rankin Scale in 17.4% vs. 18.9%
      • death in 6.7% vs. 8.2% (not significant)
    • safety outcomes comparing alteplase vs. placebo
      • any intracranial hemorrhage in 27% vs. 17.6% (p = 0.001, NNH 10)
      • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage by ECASS III definition (increase of ≥ 4 points on NIHSS score and hemorrhage identified as predominant cause of neurologic deterioration) in 2.39% vs. 0.25% (p = 0.008, NNH 46)
      • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage by NINDS definition (hemorrhage on imaging, clinical suspicion of hemorrhage or any decline in neurologic status, and no hemorrhage on prior CT scan) in 7.9% vs. 3.5% (p = 0.006, NNH 22, 95% CI for NNH 9-119)
      • fatal intracranial hemorrhage in 0.7% vs. 0% (not significant)
    • Reference - ECASS III trial (N Engl J Med 2008 Sep 25;359(13):1317), editorial can be found in N Engl J Med 2008 Sep 25;359(13):1393, commentary can be found in N Engl J Med 2008 Dec 25;359(26):2839, Ann Intern Med 2009 Jan 20;150(2):JC1
    • analyses limited to 89% patients in ECASS III trial without history of prior stroke find no significant difference in favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1) at 90 days (odds ratio 1.19, 95% CI 0.89-1.59) (J Emerg Med 2014 Mar;46(3):385)
  • patients ≥ 65 years old may have increased risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (NNH 11) without functional benefit (level 2 [mid-level] evidence), while patients < 65 years old may have reduced disability (NNT 9) without increase in symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on subgroup analysis of ECASS III trial
    • in 481 patients ≥ 65 years old, comparing alteplase vs. placebo at 90 days
      • disability score 0-1 on modified Rankin Scale in 49% vs. 45% (not significant)
      • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in 11% vs. 2% (p < 0.05, NNH 11)
      • mortality 11% vs. 9% (not significant)
    • in 339 patients < 65 years old, comparing alteplase vs. placebo at 90 days
      • disability score 0-1 on modified Rankin Scale in 57% vs. 45% (p < 0.05, NNT 9)
      • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in 4% vs. 6% (not significant)
      • mortality 3% vs. 8% (not significant)
    • Reference - Lancet Neurol 2009 Dec;8(12):1095
  • review comparing ECASS III results to other trials of IV t-PA can be found in J Emerg Med 2010 Jan;38(1):99

2012 IST-3 trial (3-4.5 hours)

  • rt-PA given 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset may decrease likelihood of independent functioning at 6 months and increase risk for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and death within 7 days (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on subgroup analyses of randomized trial without blinding (IST-3 trial)
    • 3,035 adults with acute ischemic stroke randomized to rt-PA 0.9 mg/kg IV vs. usual care within 6 hours of symptom onset
    • 1,617 patients (53%) were > 80 years old
    • time from symptom onset to randomization was
      • < 3 hours in 849 patients (28%)
      • 3-4.5 hours in 1,177 patients (39%)
      • 4.5-6 hours in 1,007 patients (33%)
    • comparing rt-PA vs. usual care in subgroup of patients randomized 3-4.5 hours after symptom onset
      • independent functioning (measured by Oxford Handicap Score 0-2) at 6 months in 31.5% vs. 37.7% (adjusted odds ratio 0.73, 99% CI 0.5-1.07)
      • DynaMed commentary -- in unadjusted analysis using 95% CI the summary statistic is odds ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.6-0.97, NNH 16, 95% CI for NNH 9-146)
      • no other outcomes reported in this subgroup
    • comparing rt-PA vs. usual care in overall cohort
      • fatal or nonfatal symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at 7 days in 7% vs. 1% (p < 0.0001, NNH 16)
      • death at 7 days in 11% vs. 7% (p = 0.001, NNH 25)
      • death at 6 months in 27% vs. 27% (not significant)
    • Reference - IST-3 trial (Lancet 2012 Jun 23;379(9834):2352 full-text), correction can be found in Lancet 2012 Aug 25;380(9843):730, editorial can be found in Lancet 2012 Jun 23;379(9834):2320
    • comparing rt-PA vs. usual care in subgroup of 1,177 patients randomized 3-4.5 hours after symptom onset
      • no significant effect on likelihood of any improvement in Oxford Handicap Score (adjusted ordinal analysis across entire scale) (adjusted odds ratio 1.06, 99% CI 0.78-1.44)
      • death within 7 days in 13% vs. 7% (adjusted odds ratio 1.82, 99% CI 1.07-3.1, NNH 16)
      • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 7 days in 7% vs. 1% (adjusted odds ratio 6.3, 99% CI 2.16-18.34, NNH 16)
      • Reference - Stroke 2015 Mar;46(3):746
    • DynaMed commentary -- good functional outcome measured as modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 not reported in subgroup of patients randomized 3-4.5 hours after symptom onset

2010 individual patient data meta-analysis (3-4.5 hours)

  • t-PA given 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset might increase likelihood of functional independence and risk for intracerebral hemorrhage without increasing mortality (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on meta-analysis of randomized trials with differences in inclusion criteria
    • meta-analysis of individual patient data from 3,670 patients who had treatment started within 6 hours of stroke onset in 8 randomized placebo-controlled trials of t-PA
    • trials individually had inconsistent results for functional outcome
      • 3 trials independently found significant improvement in functional outcome with t-PA; these 3 trials included patients with minor stroke
        • NINDS 1 + 2 trials with t-PA given 0-3 hours after stroke onset
        • ECASS III trial with t-PA given 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset
      • 5 trials independently found no improvement in functional outcome with t-PA; these 5 trials excluded patients with minor stroke
        • ECASS trial with t-PA given 0-6 hours after stroke onset
        • ECASS II trial with t-PA given 0-6 hours after stroke onset
        • ATLANTIS A trial with t-PA given 0-6 hours after stroke onset
        • ATLANTIS B trial with t-PA given 0-5 hours after stroke onset (changed to 3-5 hours after NINDS 2 trial published)
        • EPITHET trial with t-PA given 3-6 hours after stroke onset
    • comparing t-PA vs. placebo given at 3-4.5 hours (180-270 minutes) in analysis of 1,620 patients
      • good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 at 90 days) in 44.6% vs. 37.7% (p = 0.0135, adjusted odds ratio 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.68) (NNT 15 in adjusted analysis, 95% CI for NNT 8-73)
      • 90-day mortality 11% vs. 10.1% (adjusted odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 0.87-1.71) (NNH 51 for point estimate for 90-day mortality from adjusted analysis, not statistically significant)
      • clinically relevant parenchymal hemorrhage in 4.3% vs. 1.2% (p < 0.0004, adjusted odds ratio 3.61, 95% CI 1.76-7.38) (NNH 33 in adjusted analysis, 95% CI for NNH 14-112)
    • Reference - Lancet 2010 May 15;375(9727):1695, editorial can be found in Lancet 2010 May 15;375(9727):1667

2014 individual patient data meta-analysis (3-4.5 hours)

  • t-PA reported to increase likelihood of functional independence if given within 4.5 hours after stroke onset (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence) but increases risk for fatal intracranial hemorrhage within 7 days (level 1 [likely reliable] evidence) and may increase 90-day mortality (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on updated meta-analysis of individual patient data with uncertainty in compatibility of efficacy data being combined
    • individual patient data meta-analysis of 9 randomized trials with 6,756 patients randomized to t-PA vs. no t-PA within 6 hours of stroke onset (same 8 trials in meta-analysis reported above [Lancet 2010 May 15] plus IST-3 trial reported above [Lancet 2012 Jun 23])
    • DynaMed commentary -- reliability of how IST-3 data was combined with other trials for efficacy data (outcome of functional independence) is uncertain because
      • outcomes were determined differently - 3-month assessment used in most trials, but 6-month assessment from postal questionnaire used for IST-3 trial
      • outcomes not reported for individual trials, but positive outcome from 2010 meta-analysis combined with negative outcome from IST-3 trial would be expected to have summary conclusion of no overall effect, or high degree of heterogeneity questioning reliability of meta-analysis
      • approach to statistical analysis not designed to analyze efficacy (of t-PA vs. no t-PA) by time
        • prespecified analyses designed to minimize the potential for IST-3 results to "dilute substantially" the results from the prior meta-analysis
        • "the primary interest is not in the 'main effect' of treatment estimated across all the trials but rather the extent to which the treatment effect varies according to these three baseline characteristics (time from symptom onset to treatment, patient age, stroke severity)"
        • only adjusted analyses reported
      • argument made that IST-3 data could be nonrepresentative by overselecting patients with uncertainty (IST-3 eligibility criteria stated "if the patient had a clear indication for IV thrombolysis with rt-PA, they were to be treated in accordance with local guidelines") but this concern may only apply to data up to 3 hours after stroke onset, as local guidelines generally limited clear indications to that time frame
    • comparing t-PA vs. control in subgroup of 2,812 patients treated 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset
      • fatal intracranial hemorrhage within 7 days in 2.5% vs. 0.5% (adjusted odds ratio 5.63, 95% CI 2.49-12.76; NNH 44, 95% CI 18-136)
      • 90-day mortality 16.9% vs. 15.9% (hazard ratio 1.14, 95% CI 0.95-1.36; NNH 49, 95% CI NNH 19 to NNT 137)
    • Reference - Lancet 2014 Nov 29;384(9958):1929 full-text, protocol for meta-analysis in Int J Stroke 2013 Jun;8(4):278 full-text

IV Alteplase 4.5-6 Hours After Stroke

Recommendations (4.5-6 hours)

  • American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) recommends against IV alteplase at 4.5-6 hours after stroke (ACCP Grade 1B)(2)

Efficacy and safety (4.5-6 hours)

Efficacy and safety overview (4.5-6 hours)

IST-3 trial (4.5-6 hours)

  • rt-PA given 4.5-6 hours after stroke may not affect likelihood of independent functioning but may increase risk for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on subgroup analyses of randomized trial without blinding (IST-3 trial)
    • 3,035 adults with acute ischemic stroke randomized to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) 0.9 mg/kg IV vs. usual care within 6 hours of symptom onset
    • 1,617 patients (53%) were > 80 years old
    • time from symptom onset to randomization was
      • < 3 hours in 849 patients (28%)
      • 3-4.5 hours in 1,177 patients (39%)
      • 4.5-6 hours in 1,007 patients (33%)
    • comparing rt-PA vs. usual care in subgroup of patients randomized 4.5-6 hours after symptom onset
      • independent functioning (measured by Oxford Handicap Score 0-2) at 6 months in 47.3% vs. 42.6% (adjusted odds ratio 1.31, 95% CI 0.89-1.93)
      • no other outcomes reported in this subgroup
    • comparing rt-PA vs. usual care in overall cohort
      • fatal or nonfatal symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at 7 days in 7% vs. 1% (p < 0.0001, NNH 16)
      • death at 7 days in 11% vs. 7% (p = 0.001, NNH 25)
      • death at 6 months in 27% vs. 27% (not significant)
    • Reference - IST-3 trial (Lancet 2012 Jun 23;379(9834):2352 full-text), correction can be found in Lancet 2012 Aug 25;380(9843):730, editorial can be found in Lancet 2012 Jun 23;379(9834):2320
    • comparing rt-PA vs. usual care in subgroup of 1,007 patients randomized 4.5-6 hours after symptom onset
      • possibly increased likelihood of any improvement in Oxford Handicap Score (adjusted ordinal analysis across entire scale) (adjusted odds ratio 1.35, 99% CI 0.99-1.85)
      • death within 7 days in 8% vs. 5% (adjusted odds ratio 1.55, 99% CI 0.77-3.12)
      • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 7 days in 6% vs. 1% (adjusted odds ratio 6.33, 99% CI 1.8-22.2, NNH 20)
      • Reference - Stroke 2015 Mar;46(3):746

2010 individual patient data meta-analysis (4.5-6 hours)

  • t-PA given 4.5-6 hours after stroke onset may increase mortality and risk for intracerebral hemorrhage without increasing likelihood of functional independence (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on meta-analysis of randomized trials with differences in inclusion criteria
    • meta-analysis of individual patient data from 3,670 patients who had treatment started within 6 hours of stroke onset in 8 randomized placebo-controlled trials of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)
    • trials individually had inconsistent results for functional outcome
      • 3 trials independently found significant improvement in functional outcome with t-PA
        • NINDS 1 + 2 trials with t-PA given 0-3 hours after stroke onset
        • ECASS III trials with t-PA given 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset
        • all these trials included patients with minor stroke
      • 5 trials independently found no improvement in functional outcome with t-PA; these 5 trials excluded patients with minor stroke
        • ECASS trial with t-PA given 0-6 hours after stroke onset
        • ECASS II trial with t-PA given 0-6 hours after stroke onset
        • ATLANTIS A trial with t-PA given 0-6 hours after stroke onset
        • ATLANTIS B trial with t-PA given 0-5 hours after stroke onset (changed to 3-5 hours after NINDS 2 trial published)
        • EPITHET trial with t-PA given 3-6 hours after stroke onset
    • comparing t-PA vs. placebo given at 4.5-6 hours (270-360 minutes) in analysis of 1,118 patients
      • good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 at 90 days) in 37.4% vs. 35.6% (p = 0.16, odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 0.92-1.61)
      • mortality 15% vs. 10.2% (p = 0.0501, odds ratio 1.49, 95% CI 1.00-2.21) (NNH 20 in crude analysis)
      • intracerebral hemorrhage in 6.8% vs. 0.9% (p < 0.0001, odds ratio 4.32, 95% CI 2.84-18.9) (NNH 17 in crude analysis)
    • Reference - Lancet 2010 May 15;375(9727):1695, editorial can be found in Lancet 2010 May 15;375(9727):1667

2014 individual patient data meta-analysis (4.5-6 hours)

  • t-PA given > 4.5 hours after stroke onset may increase risk for fatal intracranial hemorrhage within 7 days and may increase 90-day mortality (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on updated meta-analysis of individual patient data with wide confidence intervals
    • individual patient data meta-analysis of 9 randomized trials with 6,756 patients randomized to t-PA vs. no t-PA within 6 hours of stroke onset (same 8 trials in meta-analysis reported above [Lancet 2010 May 15] plus IST-3 trial reported above [Lancet 2012 Jun 23])
    • comparing t-PA vs. control in subgroup of 2,395 patients treated > 4.5 hours after stroke onset
      • fatal intracranial hemorrhage within 7 days in 2.8% vs. 0.3% (adjusted odds ratio 8.16, 95% CI 2.88-23.11)
      • 90-day mortality 16.4% vs. 13.8% (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% CI 0.99-1.25)
    • Reference - Lancet 2014 Nov 29;384(9958):1929 full-text, protocol for meta-analysis can be found in Int J Stroke 2013 Jun;8(4):278 full-text
    • DynaMed commentary -- functional outcome data not reported here due to uncertainty in validity of this outcome analysis

2014 Cochrane review (3-6 hours)

  • DynaMed commentary -- unable to make conclusions regarding outcomes specific to 3-4.5 or 4.5-6 hour time frames from Cochrane review, because data was combined to 3-6 hour time frame and not separately reported
  • recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) given 3-6 hours after stroke may increase risk for symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and might increase overall mortality without increasing likelihood of functional independence (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on Cochrane review limited by heterogeneity and trials with methodologic limitations
    • systematic review of 27 randomized trials comparing thrombolytic agents vs. control in 10,187 patients with acute ischemic stroke
    • thrombolytic agents included rt-PA (70% of patients), urokinase, recombinant prourokinase, streptokinase, and desmoteplase
    • control group included placebo, no treatment, or aspirin
    • 23 trials evaluated IV thrombolytic agents, 4 trials evaluated intra-arterial thrombolytic agents
    • IV rt-PA evaluated in 12 trials with 7,012 patients
    • in analyses of IV rt-PA given via randomized assignment 3-6 hours after stroke onset
      • no significant difference in death or dependency (odds ratio [OR] 0.97, 95% CI 0.85-1.09) in analysis of 5 trials with 4,049 patients, results limited by significant heterogeneity
      • nonsignificantly increased overall mortality (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1-1.38) in analysis of 5 trials with 4,044 patients, results limited by significant heterogeneity
      • increased symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (OR 3.62, 95% CI 2.76-4.76) in analysis of 5 trials with 4,013 patients
      • analyses of rt-PA given within 6 hours (regardless of time of randomization) had consistent results
      • in patients treated 3-6 hours after stroke, no significant difference in favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) with 47.5% vs. 45.7% (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96-1.2) in analysis of 7 trials with 4,971 patients (Lancet 2012 Jun 23;379(9834):2364 full-text)
    • Reference - Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Jul 29;(7):CD000213
    • DynaMed commentary -- efficacy data reporting outcomes for patients treated from 0 to 6 hours after stroke onset is no longer reported in DynaMed because effect on time from symptom onset to t-PA administration appears to highly influence the efficacy results such that conclusions combining data from 0 to 3 hours and 3 to 6 hours is not valid

Management of Patient on IV Alteplase

Monitoring

  • American Heart Association/American Stroke Association recommendations for monitoring patient on IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA)(1)
    • admit patient to intensive care unit or stroke unit for monitoring
    • monitor blood pressure and perform neurologic assessment every 15 minutes during and after infusion for 2 hours, then every 30 minutes for next 6 hours, then hourly until 24 hours after treatment
    • increase frequency of blood pressure measurement if systolic blood pressure ≥ 180 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 105 mm Hg, and give antihypertensive medication to maintain blood pressure ≤ 180/105 mm Hg
    • discontinue infusion and obtain emergency computed tomography (CT) if patient develops severe headache, acute hypertension, nausea, vomiting, or has worsening neurological examination
    • delay use of nasogastric tubes, indwelling bladder catheters, or intra-arterial pressure catheters if possible
    • follow-up CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 hours, before starting anticoagulants or antiplatelets
  • Chinese Stroke Therapy Expert Panel (CSTEP) for Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator recommendations(5)

Antihypertensives

  • if considering tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA)(1)
    • if patient is otherwise eligible for recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA), blood pressure may be lowered to ≤ 185/110 mm Hg to receive rt-PA (AHA/ASA Class I, Level B)
    • medication options include
      • labetalol 10-20 mg IV over 1-2 minutes, may repeat once
      • nicardipine infusion 5 mg/hour, titrate up by 2.5 mg/hour at 5-15 minute intervals, maximum dose 15 mg/hour; when target blood pressure reached reduce to 3 mg/hour
    • blood pressure should be stabilized at ≤ 185/110 mm Hg before treating with t-PA (AHA/ASA Class I, Level B)
    • blood pressure should be maintained at < 180/105 mm Hg for at least first 24 hours after IV rt-PA
    • see Blood pressure management in acute ischemic stroke for details

Antithrombotic therapy

Special Populations

Patients with minor stroke and rapidly improving symptoms

  • rapidly improving (clearing spontaneously) or only minor symptoms or neurologic signs considered an absolute contraindication to thrombolysis by
    • American College of Emergency Physicians, American Academy of Neurology (ACEP/AAN)(3)
    • Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS)(7)
    • National Stroke Foundation (NSF) (Australia)(9)
    • South African Stroke Society (SASS)(10)
    • United Kingdom product labeling(16)
  • rapidly improving (clearing spontaneously) or only minor symptoms or neurologic signs considered a relative contraindication to thrombolysis by
    • American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA)(1)
    • Japan Stroke Society (JSS)(8)
    • Canadian product labeling - treatment of patients with minor neurological deficit or with rapidly improving symptoms is not recommended(15)
  • in patients with minor stroke and rapidly improving symptoms, IV thrombolysis does not appear to improve functional outcome at 3 months and may reduce likelihood of discharge home from hospital (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on systematic review of observational studies
    • systematic review of 13 studies evaluating IV thrombolysis in 2,905 patients with minor stroke and rapidly improving symptoms
    • review included 8 prospective cohort studies, 2 post hoc analyses of clinical trials, 1 nationwide registry study, 1 case series, and 1 retrospective study
    • minor stroke definitions ranged from National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≤ 3 to NIHSS ≤ 6
    • comparing IV thrombolysis vs. no IV thrombolysis
      • IV thrombolysis associated with reduced likelihood of discharge to home (or discharge independently from hospital)
        • odds ratio (OR) 0.5 (95% CI 0.25-0.97) in analysis of 3 studies with 336 patients
        • NNH 3-161 assuming 72% discharge home rate without IV thrombolysis
      • no significant differences in
        • modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 at 3 months (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.74-1.34) in analysis of 8 studies with 1,940 patients
        • mortality (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.54-2.72) in analysis of 9 studies with 1,604 patients
    • Reference - Neurol Sci 2014 Sep;35(9):1321

Patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm

  • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage reported in 6.7% of patients with acute ischemic stroke and unruptured intracranial aneurysm on systemic thrombolysis (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence)
    • based on systematic review of case series
    • systematic review of 6 case series evaluating systemic thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke with or without unruptured intracranial aneurysms
    • 120 patients had unruptured intracranial aneurysms
    • rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients with unruptured aneurysm was 6.7% (95% CI 3.1%-13.7%) in analysis of all studies
    • no significant difference in risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage comparing patients with unruptured aneurysm to patients without unruptured aneurysm (risk ratio 1.6, 95% CI 0.54-4.77) in analysis of 5 studies with 1,013 patients
    • Reference - Neurology 2015 Oct 27;85(17):1452

Patients > 80 years old

Guidelines and licensing

  • age > 80 years listed as contraindication for Actilyse for treatment of acute stroke in United Kingdom drug labeling(16)
  • United States and Canadian product labeling state advanced age (such as > 75 years old) may increase risks and should be weighed against anticipated benefits(14, 15)
  • age > 80 years considered a relative contraindicated to IV thrombolysis by
    • European Stroke Organisation (ESO)(6)
    • Japan Stroke Society (JSS)(8)
    • National Stroke Foundation (Australia)(9)
  • European Stroke Organisation (ESO) recommends IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) may be used in selected patients > 80 years old, but not supported by current European labelling (ESO Level C, Class III)(6)
  • Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) recommends IV thrombolysis may be used for up to 3 hours in patients > 80 years old (HAS Professional Agreement)(7)

Comparing thrombolysis vs. no thrombolysis in patients > 80 years old

  • limited efficacy data comparing thrombolytics vs. no thrombolytics in patients > 80 years old with acute ischemic stroke
    • thrombolysis may reduce disability at 3-6 months in patients > 80 years old with acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence), based on statistically significant differences in 1 cohort study and nonsignificant difference in subgroup analysis of 1 randomized trial
    • thrombolysis associated with increased mortality and intracerebral hemorrhage in patients > 80 years old with acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence), based on 1 large cohort study
  • in patients > 80 years old with acute ischemic stroke, IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) might increase likelihood of independent functioning at 6 months (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on subgroup analysis of randomized trial without blinding (IST-3 trial) and without statistical significance
    • 3,035 adults with acute ischemic stroke randomized to rt-PA 0.9 mg/kg IV vs. usual care within 6 hours of symptom onset
    • 1,617 patients (53%) were > 80 years old
    • rt-PA associated with nonsignificant increase in likelihood of independent functioning at 6 months (27.3% vs. 23.5%, adjusted odds ratio 1.35, 95% CI 0.97-1.88) in subgroup analysis of patients > 80 years old
    • Reference - IST-3 trial (Lancet 2012 Jun 23;379(9834):2352 full-text), correction can be found in Lancet 2012 Aug 25;380(9843):730, editorial can be found in Lancet 2012 Jun 23;379(9834):2320
    • DynaMed commentary -- age subgroup results not further reported by time from symptom onset to rt-PA; subgroup data from IST-3 trial by time from symptom onset suggests benefit (increase in functional independence) for use < 3 hours and harm (decrease in functional independence) for use at 3-4.5 hours
  • thrombolysis may reduce disability at 3 months in patients > 80 years old with acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on cohort study
    • 23,334 patients with acute ischemic stroke who had thrombolysis were evaluated from Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry (SITS-ISTR)
    • 6,166 patients with acute ischemic stroke who had no thrombolysis were evaluated from patients in neuroprotective drug trials
    • thrombolysis associated with lower scores on modified Rankin Scale at 3 months (p < 0.001)
    • comparing thrombolysis vs. no thrombolysis in 3,472 patients > 80 years old
      • favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) at 90 days in 32.9% vs. 20.7% (p < 0.001, NNT 8)
      • mortality at 3 months 32.6% vs. 35.3% (not significant)
      • symptomatic postthrombolysis intracerebral hemorrhage in 11% of 2,087 patients (using definition of any increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) from baseline and any parenchymal intracerebral hemorrhage)
    • comparing thrombolysis vs. no thrombolysis in 26,028 patients ≤ 80 years old
      • favorable outcomes in 56% vs. 44.4% (p < 0.001, NNT 9)
      • mortality at 3 months 13.6% vs. 14.8% (p < 0.05, NNT 84)
      • symptomatic postthrombolysis intracerebral hemorrhage in 8.3% of 20,220 patients (using definition of any increase in NIHSS from baseline and any parenchymal intracerebral hemorrhage)
    • statistical evaluation of contribution of thrombolysis to intracerebral hemorrhage not reported because posttreatment imaging results unavailable for control group
    • Reference - BMJ 2010 Nov 23;341:c6046 full-text, editorial can be found in BMJ 2010 Nov 23;341:c5891
    • DynaMed commentary -- median time from stroke onset to thrombolysis was 145 minutes in SITS-ISTR, data not reported by time to treatment
  • thrombolysis associated with increased in-hospital mortality and intracerebral hemorrhage in patients > 80 years old with acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on cohort study
    • of 524,997 patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke, 158,580 (30%) were > 80 years old
    • among patients > 80 years old, 1,659 (1%) were treated with thrombolysis
    • comparing patients > 80 years old who received thrombolysis vs. no thrombolysis
      • hospital mortality 16.9% vs. 12.75% (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% CI 1.22-1.58, NNH 24)
      • intracerebral hemorrhage in 5.73% vs. 0.53% (OR 11.43, 95% CI 9.19-14.22, NNH 19)
      • endotracheal intubation in 8.38% vs. 4.2% (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.75-2.49, NNH 24)
      • sepsis in 1.02% vs. 0.47% (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.33-3.51, NNH 181)
    • Reference - Stroke 2010 Oct;41(10):2259 full-text

Comparing age > 80 years vs. < 80 years in patients who received thrombolysis

  • compared to patients < 80 years old receiving thrombolysis, patients > 80 years old have increased mortality, increased risk for intracerebral hemorrhage, and decreased likelihood of favorable functional outcome (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on systematic review of prospective cohort studies and 2 subsequent cohort studies
    • IV thrombolysis with alteplase associated with increased mortality and less favorable functional outcomes in patients ≥ 80 years old compared to patients < 80 years old (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
      • based on systematic review of prospective cohort studies
      • systematic review of 13 prospective cohort studies (published before September 2010) comparing IV thrombolysis with alteplase in patients ≥ 80 years old vs. patients < 80 years old with acute ischemic stroke
      • alteplase in patients ≥ 80 years old associated with
        • increased mortality (odds ratio [OR] 2.77, 95% CI 2.25-3.4) in analysis of 10 studies
        • decreased risk of favorable functional outcome (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.4-0.61) in analysis of 8 studies
      • no significant difference in risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage
      • Reference - J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2011 Jul;82(7):712
    • among patients treated with thrombolytics for acute stroke, patients > 80 years old at increased risk for mortality and intracerebral hemorrhage (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
      • based on 2 large cohort studies
      • 23,334 patients with acute ischemic stroke who had thrombolysis were analyzed from SITS-ISTR
        • 3,472 patients were > 80 years old
        • comparing patients > 80 years old vs. patients ≤ 80 years old
          • favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) in 32.9% vs. 56%
          • mortality 32.6% vs. 13.6%
          • symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (using definition of ≥ 4-point increase in NIHSS from baseline) in 2.5% vs. 1.9% (p = 0.07)
          • symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (using definition of any increase in NIHSS from baseline) in 11% vs. 8.3% (p < 0.001)
        • Reference - BMJ 2010 Nov 23;341:c6046 full-text, editorial can be found in BMJ 2010 Nov 23;341:c5891
      • 524,997 patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke (27.2% > 80 years old)
        • 7,950 patients were treated with thrombolysis (20.9% > 80 years old)
        • comparing patients > 80 years old vs. patients < 80 years old in overall cohort
          • thrombolysis given in 1.05% vs. 1.72%
          • overall hospital mortality 12.8% vs. 9% (p < 0.0001)
        • comparing patients > 80 years old vs. patients < 80 years old in 7,950 patients who received thrombolysis
          • hospital mortality 16.9% vs. 11.5% (p < 0.05)
          • intracerebral hemorrhage in 5.73% vs. 4.4% (p < 0.05)
        • Reference - Stroke 2010 Oct;41(10):2259 full-text

Comparing age > 90 years vs. 80-89 years in patients who received thrombolysis

  • among patients treated with thrombolytics for acute stroke, patients ≥ 90 years old at increased risk for mortality, intracerebral hemorrhage, and poor functional outcome compared to patients aged 80-89 years (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on prospective cohort study of 284 patients ≥ 80 years old receiving thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke
    • comparing patients aged 80-89 years (mean age 83 years) vs. patients ≥ 90 years old (mean age 92 years, 70% female)
      • mortality 22.1% vs. 45.2% (p = 0.002)
      • favorable outcome in 30.2% vs. 14.3% (p = 0.034)
      • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) using Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study criteria in 4.7% vs. 13.3% (p = 0.037)
      • SICH using National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke criteria in 5.9% vs. 13.3% (p = 0.106)
    • Reference - Stroke 2011 Jul;42(7):1967 full-text, commentary can be found in Stroke 2011 Oct;42(10):e563 full-text

iScore stratification

  • t-PA may reduce risk of poor outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke and low- or moderate-risk assessed by iScore, but not in patients with high risk (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on retrospective cohort study
    • 12,686 patients with acute ischemic stroke (13.4% treated with tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA]) in the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network were analyzed
    • patients were stratified by Ischemic Stroke Predictive Risk Score (iScore) to 3 risk strata, and propensity scores for likelihood of t-PA treatment were calculated for patients in each stratum based on multiple baseline demographic and clinical factors
    • 3,380 patients were included in propensity-matched analyses comparing t-PA vs. no t-PA
      • 1,178 at low risk (iScore ≤ 139 points)
      • 1,364 at medium risk (iScore 140-179 points)
      • 838 at high risk (iScore ≥ 180 points)
    • poor outcome defined as death within 30 days of stroke admission or disability at discharge (modified Rankin Scale score 3-5)
    • rates of poor outcome comparing t-PA vs. no t-PA
      • 46.7% vs. 62.8% for low risk (p < 0.05, NNT 7)
      • 75.8% vs. 85.8% for medium risk (p < 0.05, NNT 10)
      • 92.6% vs. 95.2% for high risk (not significant)
    • mean length of stay was significantly lower in t-PA groups in each risk stratum
    • in t-PA group, hemorrhagic complications occurred in 6.4% with low risk, 13.1% with medium risk, and 19.8% with high risk
    • Reference - Stroke 2012 May;43(5):1315 full-text

Vertebrobasilar disease

  • European Stroke Organisation (ESO) recommendations(6)
    • intra-arterial thrombolysis is recommended for acute basilar occlusion in selected patients (ESO Level B, Class III)
    • IV thrombolysis for basilar occlusion is acceptable alternative, even after 3 hours (ESO Level B, Class III)
  • Chinese Stroke Therapy Expert Panel (CSTEP) for Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator suggests IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) can be considered in addition to intra-arterial thrombolysis in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (CSTEP Level IV recommendation, Level D evidence)(5)
    • no set time window for IV rt-PA in these patients
    • National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores are unreliable in these patients
  • intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy might improve clinical outcome in patients with acute posterior circulation ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
  • IV thrombolytics for vertebrobasilar disease have inconsistent results (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence)
    • based on 3 small case series
    • 12 patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) within 3 hours after onset of stroke
      • 10 patients reported to have favorable outcomes
      • 1 had poor outcome
      • 1 died
    • 5 patients treated with t-PA within 6 hours after onset of stroke
      • 2 patients had minor partial reperfusion
      • 1 had complete reperfusion
      • 1 remained with "locked-in" state (devastating stroke)
      • 3 died
    • 18 patients treated with t-PA within 8 hours after onset of stroke
      • 10 patients capable of self-care at 3-month follow-up
      • 6 patients considered to be in poor condition
      • 2 patients died
    • Reference - N Engl J Med 2005 Jun 23;352(25):2618
  • see also Basilar artery occlusion for additional evidence regarding IV and intra-arterial thrombolytics

Stroke after cardiac catheterization

  • in patients with ischemic stroke after cardiac catheterization, thrombolysis reported to improve stroke symptoms at 24 hours and 7 days (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence)
    • based on retrospective cohort study with reported differences potentially due to baseline differences
    • 66 patients with ischemic stroke after cardiac catheterization were analyzed
    • 12 patients (18%) had thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA)
      • administration was IV in 7 patients and intra-arterial in 5 patients
      • median time from symptom onset to rt-PA treatment with was 142 minutes (range 54-305 minutes)
    • comparing patients treated with rt-PA vs. no rt-PA
      • median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at baseline 10.5 points vs. 6 points (p = 0.01)
      • median decrease in NIHSS score from baseline to 24 hours was 6 points vs. 0 points (p < 0.001)
      • either complete resolution (NIHSS of 0) or ≥ 5-point improvement in NIHSS score over first 24 hours in 58% vs. 15% (p < 0.003)
      • median decrease in NIHSS from baseline to 7 days was 6.5 points vs. 1.5 points (p = 0.004)
      • asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage in 25% vs. 6% (p = 0.037)
      • no significant differences in
        • mortality during hospital stay (8% vs. 7%)
        • minor puncture site bleeding (8% vs. 7%)
        • discharge without disability (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1) (30% vs. 28%)
      • no episodes of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, retroperitoneal hemorrhage, hemopericardium, other sites of bleeding, or blood transfusions
    • Reference - J Am Coll Cardiol 2008 Mar 4;51(9):906 full-text, editorial can be found in J Am Coll Cardiol 2008 Mar 4;51(9):912 full-text, commentary can be found in J Am Coll Cardiol 2008 Jul 22;52(4):317 full-text
    • DynaMed commentary -- most of the difference between groups (5-6 points in NIHSS score) may be attributed to baseline differences (4 points); study design cannot distinguish effect of rt-PA from effect of patient selection (giving rt-PA to patients who had transiently higher NIHHS score)

Dose and Drug Variations

Dose comparisons

  • higher-dose thrombolytic may increase fatal intracranial hemorrhage compared to lower-dose thrombolytic in patients with acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on Cochrane review without significant differences in high-quality trials
    • systematic review of 20 randomized trials evaluating thrombolytics in 2,527 patients with acute ischemic stroke
    • 13 trials with 1,433 patients compared higher-dose thrombolytic to lower dose of same thrombolytic
    • thrombolytics included tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase, desmoteplase, and tenecteplase
    • comparing higher vs. lower dose of same thrombolytic
      • higher-dose thrombolytic associated with
        • increase in fatal intracranial hemorrhage in analysis of 10 trials with 1,274 patients
          • odds ratio (OR) 2.71 (95% CI 1.22-6.04)
          • NNH 21-460 with fatal intracranial hemorrhage in 1% of lower-dose thrombolytic group
          • analysis includes 2 high-quality trials, but results in these trials not statistically significant
        • nonsignificant increase in total major extracranial hemorrhage (OR 1.72, 95% CI 0.93-3.21) in analysis of 9 trials with 1,154 patients
      • no significant differences in
        • mortality in analysis of 12 trials with 1,403 patients
        • death or dependency in analysis of 7 trials with 630 patients
    • Reference - Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 May 31;(5):CD000514
  • lower dose of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (< 0.65 mg/kg) associated with lower risk of poor functional outcomes than higher doses in Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on prospective cohort study
    • 1,004 Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke receiving thrombolytic therapy were analyzed
      • all patients received between 0.6 mg/kg and 0.9 mg/kg doses of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA)
      • 97.2% completed 1-month follow-up and 95.6% completed 3-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS)
    • rt-PA dose ≤ 0.65 mg/kg associated with decreased risk of poor functional outcome (mRS score > 1) at 3 months compared to higher doses (adjusted odds ratio 0.67, 95% CI 0.45-0.98)
    • rt-PA dose > 0.86 mg/kg associated with increased risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio 2.15, 95% CI 1.19-3.86)
    • in patients > 70 years old, increasing doses of rt-PA associated with
      • increased risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage
      • decreased risk of good functional outcome at 3 months
      • increased mortality
    • Reference - Stroke 2014 Aug;45(8):2359
  • alteplase (t-PA) 0.72 mg/kg may have better outcomes than alteplase 0.9 mg/kg in Chinese patients ≥ 70 years old with acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on prospective cohort study
    • 241 Chinese patients (mean age 66 years) with acute ischemic stroke received alteplase 0.72 mg/kg IV vs. alteplase 0.9 mg/kg IV and were followed for up to 3 months
    • comparing alteplase 0.72 mg/kg vs. 0.9 mg/kg
      • symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage in 2.6% vs. 8% (not significant)
      • 3-month mortality 6.9% vs. 12.8% (not significant)
    • comparing alteplase 0.72 mg/kg vs. 0.9 mg/kg in subgroup of 112 patients ≥ 70 years old
      • symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage in 3.3% vs. 15.4% (p = 0.0257, NNT 9)
      • 3-month mortality 5% vs. 21.1% (p = 0.0099, NNT 7)
      • independence rate 53.6% vs. 32.6% (p = 0.0311, NNT 5)
    • Reference - Stroke 2010 May;41(5):885 full-text

Combination antithrombotics with thrombolytics

  • eptifibatide plus lower-dose recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) being studied to reduce risk for intracranial hemorrhage compared to standard rt-PA for acute ischemic stroke, but differences in clinical outcomes are not established (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on 2 small randomized trials with inadequate statistical power
    • 126 patients in CLEAR-ER trial
      • 126 patients aged 18-85 years with acute ischemic stroke were randomized to combination therapy (rt-PA 0.6 mg/kg, plus eptifibatide 135 mg/kg bolus then 0.75 mg/kg/minute for 2 hours) vs. standard rt-PA (0.9 mg/kg) IV within 3 hours of symptom onset
      • comparing combination therapy vs. standard rt-PA
        • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at 36 hours in 2% in vs. 12% (p = 0.053)
        • good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 1 or return to baseline) at 90 days in 49.5% vs. 30% (not significant)
      • Reference - CLEAR-ER trial (Stroke 2013 Sep;44(9):2381), editorial can be found in Stroke 2013 Sep;44(9):2377
    • 94 patients in CLEAR trial
      • 94 patients aged 18-80 years who were diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke randomized to 1 of 3 treatments within 3 hours of symptom onset
        • rt-PA 0.3 mg/kg plus eptifibatide 75 mcg/kg bolus followed by 0.75 mcg/kg/minute infusion for 2 hours
        • rt-PA 0.45 mg/kg plus eptifibatide 75 mcg/kg bolus followed by 0.75 mcg/kg/minute infusion for 2 hours
        • rt-PA 0.9 mg/kg
      • at 36 hours after treatment intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 1.4% of patients treated with combination therapy compared with 8% of patients treated with conventional rt-PA therapy (not significant)
      • Reference - CLEAR trial (Stroke 2008 Dec;39(12):3268 full-text)

Thrombolytics other than rt-PA

Tenecteplase

  • tenecteplase (TNKase) FDA approved for treatment of acute myocardial infarction but not for acute stroke
  • usefulness of IV tenecteplase is not well established, and should only be used in setting of a clinical trial (AHA/ASA Class IIb, Level B)(1)
  • tenecteplase might have similar clinical outcomes compared to alteplase if given within 4.5 hours of onset of acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on 3 randomized trials with inconsistent results
    • tenecteplase may have similar radiologic and neurologic outcomes compared to alteplase if given within 4.5 hours of acute ischemic stroke onset (level 2 [mid-level] evidence), but tenecteplase might be associated with increased risk for serious adverse events (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
      • based on randomized trial without intention-to-treat analysis, and with limited detail for serious adverse events
      • 104 adults with clinical diagnosis of supratentorial acute ischemic stroke eligible for IV thrombolysis within 4.5 hours of symptom onset were randomized to tenecteplase 0.25 mg/kg (maximum 25 mg) vs. alteplase 0.9 mg/kg (maximum 90 mg) and followed for 90 days
      • patients and outcome assessors were blinded to treatment, but treating clinicians were not blinded due to differences in drug administration schedules
      • primary outcome was penumbral salvage of ischemic but viable tissue at 24-48 hours after treatment (estimated as penumbra volume on baseline computed tomography [CT] perfusion minus infarcted penumbra volume at 24-48 hours on noncontrast CT)
      • 92.3% had final diagnosis of stroke, ≤ 92.3% were included in analyses (68.3% were included in penumbral salvage analysis)
      • comparing tenecteplase vs. alteplase
        • mean penumbral salvage 68% vs. 68% (not significant)
        • excellent recovery (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1) at 90 days in 28% vs. 20% (not significant)
        • poor recovery (modified Rankin Scale score 5-6) at 90 days in 21.3% vs. 18.4% (no p value reported)
        • mortality at 90 days 17% vs. 12% (not significant)
        • any intracerebral hemorrhage in 15% vs. 27% (p = 0.09)
        • any parenchymal hemorrhage in 2% vs. 10% (p = 0.12)
        • symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ECASS II definition) in 6% vs. 8% (not significant)
        • any serious adverse event within 7 days in 15% vs. 18% (not significant)
        • any serious adverse event 7-90 days after stroke in 35% vs. 14% (no p value reported, NNH 4)
        • serious adverse events not clearly reported by time of event (0-7 days vs. 7-90 days) and included many different things such as new ischemic stroke, extracranial bleeding, pneumonia, atrial fibrillation, abdominal pain, chest pain, renal impairment, and planned medical procedures
      • Reference - ATTEST trial (Lancet Neurol 2015 Apr;14(4):368)
    • tenecteplase may increase likelihood of good functional recovery (no to slight disability at 90 days) compared to alteplase if given within 4.5 hours of onset of acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
      • based on small randomized trial
      • 75 patients > 18 years old within 6 hours of acute ischemic stroke and CT imaging criteria suggesting high likelihood of benefit from early reperfusion were randomized to 1 of 3 treatments
        • alteplase 0.9 mg/kg (maximum 90 mg) IV with 10% as initial bolus and 90% over 1 hour
        • tenecteplase 0.1 mg/kg (maximum 10 mg) IV bolus
        • tenecteplase 0.25 mg/kg (maximum 25 mg) IV bolus
      • CT imaging criteria were
        • CT angiographic imaging showing intracranial occlusion of anterior cerebral, middle cerebral, or posterior cerebral artery
        • CT perfusion imaging showing infarct-core lesion < one-third of middle cerebral artery territory or < one-half of anterior cerebral or posterior cerebral artery territory, and hemispheric perfusion lesion ≥ 20 mL and ≥ 20% greater than infarct-core lesion
      • of 2,164 patients screened for trial enrollment, only 604 (22%) were potentially eligible for IV thrombolysis, of whom 127 (5% of original group) met CT imaging criteria
      • baseline differences between groups
        • alteplase group had fewer smokers and lower prevalence of diabetes
        • mean time to treatment 2.7 hours with alteplase vs. 3.1 hours with tenecteplase (both groups combined)
      • treating clinicians were not blinded due to differences in drug administration schedules
      • only 3 patients were treated after 4.5 hours
      • comparing tenecteplase (both groups combined) vs. alteplase
        • good or excellent recovery (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) at 90 days in 72% vs. 44% (p = 0.02, NNT 4)
        • excellent recovery (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1) at 90 days in 54% vs. 40% (not significant)
        • poor recovery (modified Rankin Scale score 5-6) at 90 days in 10% vs. 28% (p = 0.09)
        • mortality 8% vs. 12% (not significant)
        • mean improvement in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at 24 hours 8 vs. 3 (p < 0.001)
        • major neurologic improvement (NIHSS score reduced by ≥ 8) at 24 hours in 64% vs. 36% (p = 0.02, NNT 4)
        • mean reperfusion volume at 24 hours 79.3% vs. 55.4% (p = 0.004)
        • large parenchymal hematomas in 4% vs. 16% (p = 0.09)
      • comparing tenecteplase 0.25 mg/kg vs. 0.1 mg/kg
        • mean improvement in NIHSS score at 24 hours 9.6 vs. 6.3 (p = 0.0326)
        • excellent recovery (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1) at 90 days in 72% vs. 36% (p = 0.011, NNT 3)
        • good or excellent recovery (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) at 90 days in 84% vs. 60% (p = 0.114)
        • poor recovery (modified Rankin Scale score 5-6) at 90 days in 8% vs. 12% (not significant)
        • mortality in 4% vs. 12% (not significant)
      • Reference - N Engl J Med 2012 Mar 22;366(12):1099
    • in randomized trial with early termination
      • randomized trial comparing 3 different doses of tenecteplase (0.1 mg/kg vs. 0.25 mg/kg vs. 0.4 mg/kg) to alteplase 0.9 mg/kg was terminated early due to slow enrolment (112 patients randomized at time of termination)
      • no clear differences in outcomes at 3 months, but trial too small to support reliable conclusions
      • allocation into tenecteplase 0.4 mg/kg group was stopped before trial termination due to increased rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage
      • Reference - Stroke 2010 Apr;41(4):707 full-text
    • no significant difference in death or dependance at 3 months comparing tenecteplase vs. alteplase in meta-analysis of these 3 trials
    • DynaMed commentary -- alteplase given 3-4.5 hours after stroke onset increases risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and risk of fatal intracranial hemorrhage within 7 days (level 1 [likely reliable] evidence) and might increase 90-day mortality (level 2 [mid-level] evidence) with uncertain effect on functional outcomes; tenecteplase efficacy, safety, and comparative efficacy and safety by time windows (0-3 hours, 3-4.5 hours) not reported

Streptokinase

  • IV streptokinase not recommended (AHA/ASA Class III, Level A)(1)
  • streptokinase associated with increased mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on association with increased mortality in 2 of 3 randomized trials
    • streptokinase associated with early mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
      • based on early termination of randomized trial without blinding
      • 622 patients with acute ischemic stroke within 6 hours of symptom onset were randomized to streptokinase (1.5 million units IV over 1 hour) vs. aspirin (300 mg/day for 10 days) vs. streptokinase plus aspirin vs. neither
      • comparing streptokinase vs. no streptokinase
        • mortality at 10 days 26.5% vs. 11.5% (p < 0.05, NNH 6)
        • mortality at 6 months 35.8% vs. 24% (p < 0.05, NNH 8)
        • disability at 6 months in 26.8% vs. 39.9% (p < 0.05, NNT 8)
        • death or disability at 6 months in 62.6% vs. 63.9% (not significant)
      • Reference - MAST-I trial (Lancet 1995 Dec 9;346(8989):1509), editorial can be found in Lancet 1995 Dec 9;346(8989):1504, commentary can be found in Lancet 1996 Feb 10;347(8998):391
      • later commentary by same authors suggests that addition of aspirin to streptokinase increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage and streptokinase alone should be studied (Lancet 1998 Sep 12;352(9131):880)
    • streptokinase associated with increased mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
      • based on randomized trial with borderline statistical significance
      • 310 patients with acute ischemic stroke and ischemia in middle cerebral artery territory were randomized to streptokinase 1.5 million units vs. placebo IV over 1 hour within 6 hours of stroke onset
      • comparing streptokinase vs. placebo
        • mortality at 10 days 34% vs. 18.2% (p = 0.002, NNH 7)
        • mortality at 6 months 46.8% vs. 38.3% (p = 0.06)
        • primary outcome of death or severe disability (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 3) at 6 months in 79.5% vs. 81.8% (not significant)
      • Reference - MAST-E trial (N Engl J Med 1996 Jul 18;335(3):145 full-text), editorial can be found in N Engl J Med 1996 Jul 18;335(3):199, commentary can be found in N Engl J Med 1997 Jan 2;336(1):65
    • streptokinase within 4 hours of stroke onset does not appear to reduce mortality or disability (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
      • based on randomized trial with wide confidence intervals
      • 340 patients aged 18-85 years with stroke randomized to streptokinase 1.5 million units vs. placebo IV in normal saline 100 mL over 1 hour
      • no significant difference in risk of unfavorable outcome (death or disability) at 3 months (relative risk 1.08, 95% CI 0.74-1.58)
      • streptokinase associated with higher rate of hematomas (13.2% vs. 3%, p < 0.01, NNH 9) and symptomatic hematomas (12.6% vs. 2.4%, NNH 9)
      • in subgroup of 70 patients treated within 3 hours after stroke onset, streptokinase associated with nonsignificant reduction in risk of unfavorable outcome (death or disability) at 3 months (relative risk 0.66, 95% CI 0.28-1.58)
      • Reference - ASK trial (JAMA 1996 Sep 25;276(12):961), editorial can be found in JAMA 1996 Sep 25;276(12):995, commentary can be found in JAMA 1997 Jan 1;277(1):19

Desmoteplase

  • usefulness of IV desmoteplase is not well established, and should only be used in setting of a clinical trial (AHA/ASA Class IIb, Level B)(1)
  • desmoteplase 3-9 hours after ischemic stroke may not improve 90-day functional outcomes in patients with occlusion or high-grade stenosis of cerebral arteries (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on randomized trial with confidence intervals including both presence and absence of clinically meaningful differences
    • 492 patients with ischemic stroke plus occlusion or high-grade stenosis in major cerebral artery on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography were randomized to desmoteplase 90 mcg/kg IV vs. placebo IV within 3-9 hours of witnessed symptom onset
      • all patients had National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score 4-24
      • patients with modified Rankin Scale score > 1 before stroke were excluded
    • median time from stroke onset to treatment was 6.9 hours in desmoteplase group vs. 7 hours in placebo group (not significant)
    • NIHSS response defined as NIHSS score decrease ≥ 8 points or NIHSS ≤ 1 at 90 days
    • 82.3% completed trial and 96.1% were included in analysis
    • comparing desmoteplase vs. placebo at 90 days
      • modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 in 51% vs. 50% (adjusted odds ratio 1.2, 95% CI 0.79–1.81)
      • NIHSS response in 62% vs. 56% (not significant)
      • mortality in 10% vs. 10% (not significant)
      • any serious adverse events in 27% vs. 29% (no p value reported)
      • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in 3% vs. 2% (no p value reported)
      • major hemorrhage in 4% vs. 6% (no p value reported)
    • consistent results in per protocol analysis
    • Reference - DIAS-3 trial (Lancet Neurol 2015 Jun;14(6):575)
  • desmoteplase not associated with improved clinical response at 90 days after acute stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on randomized trial with inadequate statistical power
    • 193 patients with acute ischemic stroke diagnosed by MRI or CT were randomized to IV desmoteplase 90 mcg/kg vs. desmoteplase 125 mcg/kg vs. placebo within 3-9 hours of onset of stroke symptoms
    • clinical response rates at 90 days 47% with desmoteplase 90 mcg/kg vs. 36% with desmoteplase 125 mcg/kg vs. 46% with placebo
    • pretrial sample size estimates based on assumed 20% clinical response rate in placebo group (larger sample size would be needed to confidently exclude a difference with a 46% clinical response rate in placebo group)
    • Reference - DIAS-2 trial (Lancet Neurol 2009 Feb;8(2):141 full-text), editorial can be found in Lancet Neurol 2009 Feb;8(2):126

Urokinase

Fibrinogen depleting agents

Ancrod

  • serine protease inhibitor that reduces fibrinogen levels
  • defibrinogenating agent derived from snake venom
  • usefulness of IV ancrod is not well established, and should only be used in setting of a clinical trial (AHA/ASA Class IIb, Level B)(1)
  • ancrod does not decrease mortality and increases risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients with definite or probable ischemic stroke (level 1 [likely reliable] evidence) but might reduce dependency in surviving patients (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on Cochrane review
    • systematic review of 8 randomized trials comparing fibrinogen-depleting agents started within 14 days of stroke onset vs. placebo or control in 5,701 patients with definite or probable ischemic stroke
    • 6 trials with 2,404 patients evaluated ancrod
    • no significant difference in all-cause mortality at end of follow-up (risk ratio [RR] 1.1, 95% CI 0.95-1.29) in analysis of 6 trials with 2,404 patients
    • ancrod associated with
      • nonsignificant decrease in death or dependency at end of follow-up (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.9-1.02) in analysis of 4 trials with 2,354 patients
      • increase in symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at end of treatment period in analysis of 6 trials with 2,404 patients
        • RR 3.56 (95% CI 2.15-5.87)
        • NNH 12-54 with 1.6% having symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at end of treatment period in control group
      • decrease in pulmonary embolism or infarction in analysis of 2 trials with 1,000 patients
        • RR 0.25 (95% CI 0.07-0.88)
        • NNT 45-348 with 2.4% having pulmonary embolism or infarction in control group
    • Reference - Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012 Mar 14;(3):CD000091
  • summaries of large ancrod trials
    • ancrod has inconsistent results for functional status in 2 randomized trials
      • STAT trial randomized 500 patients within 3 hours of stroke onset in United States and Canada, although some patients were allowed up to 6 hours before treatment
      • ESTAT trial enrolled 1,222 patients within 6 hours of stroke onset in Europe, Australia, and Israel; adapted from STAT trial but with stricter computed tomography (CT) entry criteria and blood pressure modifications
      • both trials enrolled patients with ischemic stroke and acute symptoms lasting at least 30 minutes
      • patients were randomized to ancrod vs. placebo as continuous 72-hour IV infusion, followed by infusions lasting about 1 hour at 96 and 120 hours, infusion rates based on fibrinogen levels with ancrod regimen designed to decrease plasma fibrinogen levels to 1.2-2.1 mcmol/L
      • primary outcome of favorable functional status defined as survival at 90 days with Barthel Index 95 or greater (scale 0-100) or at least equal to prestroke value
      • comparing ancrod vs. placebo in STAT trial
        • 41.1% vs. 35.3% achieved favorable functional status (p = 0.04, NNT 18 but NNT 13 after adjustment for baseline severity)
        • 11.8% vs. 19.8% severely disabled (p = 0.01, NNT 13)
        • 77% vs. 83.3% completed the treatment (difference not statistically significant)
        • no significant differences in mortality rates at 7 days (8.9% vs. 9.5%), 3 months (25.4% vs. 23%), or end of trial (33.5% vs. 32.5%)
        • adverse events within 28 days included 5.2% vs. 2% symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (p = 0.06, NNH 31), 19% vs. 10.7% asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (p = 0.01, NNH 12), 5.2% vs. 9.5% venous thrombotic event (p = 0.05, NNT 24)
        • trial funded by drug manufacturer
        • Reference - JAMA 2000 May 10;283(18):2395 full-text
        • editorial noting that multicenter trial was conducted mostly in community hospitals, many comparisons with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and mention of another ancrod trial with therapy given up to 6 hours that was terminated early due to increased mortality can be found in JAMA 2000 May 10;283(18):2440
        • commentary can be found in JAMA 2000 Sep 20;284(11):1379 and in JAMA 2000 Oct 18;284(15):1926, commentary and comparison with NINDS trial can be found in ACP J Club 2000 Nov-Dec;133(3):91
      • comparing ancrod vs. placebo in ESTAT trial
        • 42% vs. 42% favorable functional outcome at 3 months (no significant difference)
          • 43% vs. 42% in 1,078 patients treated after 3 hours (not significant)
          • 33% vs. 42% in 138 patients treated within 3 hours (not significant)
        • 20% vs. 14% mortality at 3 months (p = 0.023, NNH 16)
        • 25% vs. 21% mortality at 12 months (not significant)
        • neurological recovery in Scandinavian Stroke Scale +3.6 vs. +5.2 points (p = 0.042)
        • 7% vs. 2% symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (p = 0.007, NNH 20)
        • 5.3% vs. 2% asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (p = 0.011, NNH 30)
        • Reference - Lancet 2006 Nov 25;368(9550):1871, editorial can be found in Lancet 2006 Nov 25;368(9550):1845
    • ancrod does not appear to improve 90-day function scores and may increase risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients with acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
      • based on randomized trial with early termination and inadequate statistical power
      • 508 adults (mean age 70 years) with acute ischemic stroke and able to begin study treatment within 6 hours of symptom onset randomized to ancrod 0.167 units/kg/hour vs. placebo by IV infusion over 2-3 hours
      • study terminated early after interim futility analysis (at 38.5% of targeted recruitment)
      • 82.4% of randomized patients completed study
      • efficacy and safety analyses included 98.4% of randomized patients (anyone infused with any designated treatment material)
      • primary outcome was favorable treatment response at 90 days, defined as any of
        • prestroke modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-1, pretreatment National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score 5-15, and 90-day mRS score 0-1
        • prestroke mRS score 0-1, pretreatment NIHSS score ≥ 16, and 90-day mRS score 0-2
        • prestroke mRS score ≥ 2, any pretreatment NIHSS score, 90-day mRS score ≤ prestroke mRS score
      • comparing ancrod vs. placebo at 90 days
        • favorable treatment response in 39.6% vs. 37.2% (not significant)
        • mortality 15.6% vs. 14.1% (not significant)
        • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within first 72 hours
          • using Ancrod Stroke Program criteria in 3.9% vs. 2% (not significant)
          • using ECASS II criteria in 3.5% vs. 0.4% (p = 0.021, NNH 32)
        • any serious adverse event in 38% vs. 33.1% (not significant)
      • Reference - Stroke 2009 Dec;40(12):3796 full-text

Defibrase

  • usefulness of other defibrinogenating agents (such as defibrase) is not well established, and should only be used in setting of a clinical trial (AHA/ASA Class IIb, Level B)(1)
  • defibrase may not reduce mortality but might reduce dependency and may reduce risk of recurrent stroke in patients with definite or probable ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on Cochrane review of trials with methodologic limitations
    • systematic review of 8 randomized trials comparing fibrinogen-depleting agents started within 14 days of stroke onset vs. placebo or control in 5,701 patients with definite or probable ischemic stroke
    • 2 trials with 3,297 patients evaluated defibrase; both had 17%-27% loss to follow-up at 1 year and did not perform intention-to-treat analysis
    • no significant differences in
      • all-cause mortality at end of follow-up (risk ratio [RR] 0.99, 95% CI 0.76-1.29) in analysis of 2 trials with 2,624 patients
      • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at end of treatment period (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.6-2.2) in analysis of 2 trials with 3,000 patients
    • defibrase associated with nonsignificant decrease in death or dependency at end of follow-up (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-1) in analysis of 2 trials with 3,000 patients
    • defibrase associated with decrease in recurrent stroke (ischemic or unknown type) at end of follow-up in analysis of 2 trials with 2,624 patients
      • RR 0.68 (0.5-0.93)
      • NNT 29-204 with 7% having recurrent stroke at end of follow-up in control group
    • Reference - Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012 Mar 14;(3):CD000091

Ultrasound-Enhanced Thrombolysis

  • Haute Autorité de Santé does not recommend sonothrombolysis(7)
  • American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) reports effectiveness of sonothrombolysis is not well established (AHA/ASA Class IIb, Level B)(1)
  • addition of ultrasound to IV tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) (sonothrombolysis) might reduce disability compared to t-PA alone in patients with acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on Cochrane review of trials with methodologic limitations
    • systematic review of 5 randomized trials evaluating ultrasound-enhanced IV thrombolysis in 233 patients with definite acute ischemic stroke
    • 4 trials had methodologic limitations including unclear blinding, incomplete outcome data, or selective reporting
    • 1 trial without methodologic limitations had only 15 patients and did not include t-PA in control group
    • compared to t-PA alone, ultrasound plus t-PA associated with
      • decreased death or dependency at 3 months in analysis of 4 trials with 191 patients
        • odds ratio (OR) 0.52 (95% CI 0.28-0.97)
        • NNT 4-146 with death or dependency in 66% in t-PA alone group
        • none of the trials were statistically significant individually in this analysis
        • independence defined as modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 in 3 trials and modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 in 1 trial, so meta-analysis may not be clearly representing a single outcome
      • decreased recanalization failure (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.17-0.56) in analysis of 4 trials with 215 patients
      • nonsignificant increase in symptomatic or asymptomatic cerebral hemorrhage (OR 2.43, 95% CI 0.89-6.65) in analysis of 4 trials with 214 patients
      • no significant effect on mortality at follow-up (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.45-2.25) in analysis of 4 trials with 191 patients
    • Reference - Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012 Oct 17;(10):CD008348
  • high-frequency ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis may improve recanalization rates (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence) without increasing risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on systematic review without study quality assessment
    • systematic review of 6 randomized trials and 3 nonrandomized studies evaluating ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis (transcranial Doppler, transcranial color-coded duplex, or low-frequency ultrasound) on t-PA activity in 416 patients with acute cerebral ischemia
    • high-frequency ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis (transcranial Doppler or transcranial color-coded duplex ultrasound) compared to t-PA alone in analysis of 5 trials
      • no significant difference in risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage
      • increased likelihood of complete recanalization in high-frequency group (odds ratio 2.99, 95% CI 1.7-5.25)
    • Reference - Stroke 2010 Feb;41(2):280 full-text
  • addition of continuous ultrasound to t-PA improves recanalization rates but no clear effect on clinical outcomes (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence)
    • based on 2 randomized trial without differences in clinical outcomes
    • 126 patients with acute ischemic stroke due to middle cerebral artery occlusion were treated with IV t-PA within 3 hours and randomized to active vs. sham ultrasound treatment
      • ultrasound treatment started before t-PA bolus and provided continuous 2-megahertz (MHz) pulsed-wave ultrasound to occlusion (up to 750 milliwatts [mW]) for 2 hours
      • active ultrasound improved rates of complete recanalization at 2 hours (46% vs. 18%, p < 0.001) but did not significantly affect clinical recovery within 2 hours (29% vs. 21%, p = 0.4)
      • no significant difference in rates of intracerebral hemorrhage (5% in each group)
      • at 3 months, 42% vs. 29% had favorable outcomes based on modified Rankin Scale score 0 or 1 but this result was not statistically significant (p = 0.2) and not based on intention-to-treat analysis
      • worst-case scenario assumptions for dropouts (favorable outcome for control group but not intervention) would result in 35% vs. 44% having favorable outcome (nonsignificantly favoring control group)
      • Reference - CLOTBUST trial (N Engl J Med 2004 Nov 18;351(21):2170 full-text)
    • 37 patients with acute middle cerebral artery main stem occlusion randomized to 1-hour transcranial continuous ultrasound vs. control
      • all patients had standard t-PA thrombolysis
      • comparing ultrasound vs. control
        • complete or partial recanalization after 1 hour in 57.9% vs. 22.2% (p = 0.045, NNT 3)
        • Barthel index ≥ 95 at 90 days in 42% vs. 0% (p = 0.003, NNT 3)
        • modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 1 at 90 days in 21% vs. 0% (p = 0.1)
        • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in 15.8% vs. 5.6% (not significant)
      • Reference - Stroke 2008 May;39(5):1470 full-text

Intra-Arterial Thrombolytics

Recommendations (intra-arterial thrombolytics)

  • no drug is FDA approved for intra-arterial use in treatment of stroke(1)
  • DynaMed commentary -- recommendations for intra-arterial thrombolytics predate 5 randomized trials in 2015 supporting endovascular therapy with stent retrievers; see Endovascular therapy for acute stroke for details
  • American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) guidelines regarding intra-arterial thrombolysis for adults with ischemic stroke(1)
    • patients eligible for IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) should receive IV rt-PA even if intra-arterial treatments are being considered (AHA/ASA Class I, Level A)
    • intra-arterial thrombolysis is beneficial for selected patients with major ischemic stroke < 6 hours old due to occlusion of middle cerebral artery who are not candidates for IV rt-PA (AHA/ASA Class I, Level B)
      • optimal dose of intra-arterial rt-PA is not well established
      • rt-PA does not have FDA approval for intra-arterial use
    • intra-arterial thrombolysis considered reasonable for patients who have contraindications to IV thrombolysis (AHA/ASA Class IIa, Level C)
    • delays to definitive therapy should be minimized because reduced time from symptom onset to reperfusion with intra-arterial therapies is highly correlated with better clinical outcomes (AHA/ASA Class I, Level B)
    • intra-arterial treatment should be performed at stroke center with qualified interventionalists and immediate access to cerebral angiography (AHA/ASA Class I, Level C)
    • rescue intra-arterial fibrinolysis may be reasonable approach to recanalization in patients with large-artery occlusion who have not responded to IV fibrinolysis (AHA/ASA Class IIb, Level B)
    • intra-arterial fibrinolysis contraindicated if current use of direct thrombin inhibitors or direct factor Xa inhibitors with elevated sensitive laboratory tests (such as activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], INR, platelet count, ecarin clotting time [ECT], thrombin time [TT], or appropriate factor Xa activity assays) (AHA/ASA Class III, Level C); use may be considered if normal laboratory tests or patient (with normal renal function) has not had dose for > 2 days
  • American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines regarding intra-arterial thrombolysis therapy with t-PA for acute ischemic stroke(2)
    • IV t-PA suggested over combination of IV plus intra-arterial tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) (ACCP Grade 2C)
    • intra-arterial thrombolysis suggested for patients with acute ischemic stroke due to proximal cerebral artery occlusions (that is, internal carotid artery, middle cerebral artery, vertebral artery, and basilar artery) who do not meet eligibility criteria for treatment with IV t-PA; in such patients, intra-arterial t-PA started within 6 hours of symptom onset suggested over no intra-arterial t-PA (ACCP Grade 2C)
  • European Stroke Organisation (ESO) recommendations regarding intra-arterial thrombolysis(6)
    • intra-arterial treatment of acute middle cerebral artery occlusion within 6-hour time window recommended as an option (ESO Level B, Class II)
    • intra-arterial thrombolysis is recommended for acute basilar occlusion in selected patients (ESO Level B, Class II)

Evidence (intra-arterial thrombolytics)

  • intra-arterial urokinase or recombinant prourokinase within 6 hours of acute ischemic stroke may reduce disability but increase risk of intracranial hemorrhage (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on Cochrane review of trials stopped early
    • systematic review of 4 randomized trials evaluating percutaneous vascular interventions in 350 patients with definite ischemic stroke
    • trials tested intra-arterial urokinase or recombinant prourokinase vs. open control; 1 trial used guidewire-mediated clot disruption in some patients in intervention group
    • most trials included patients with middle cerebral artery infarction and were started up to 6 hours after stroke
    • 3 of 4 trials stopped early
    • intra-arterial urokinase or prourokinase associated with
      • improved functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1) at end of follow-up in analysis of 4 trials
        • risk ratio (RR) 1.73 (95% CI 1.17-2.57)
        • NNT 4-31 assuming modified Rankin Scale score of 0-1 in 19% of control group
      • nonsignificant increased risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 24 hours (RR 3.85, 95% CI 0.91-16.36) in analysis of 2 trials with 202 patients
      • increased risk of all intracranial hemorrhages within 24 hours in analysis of 2 trials with 202 patients
        • RR 3.11 (95% CI 1.56-6.18)
        • NNH 1-14 assuming intracranial hemorrhage in 12% of controls
    • Reference - Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010 Oct 6;(10):CD007574
    • intra-arterial prourokinase within 6 hours may improve clinical outcome at 90 days but with increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
      • based on randomized trial with borderline statistical significance and baseline differences (only trial in Cochrane review which was not stopped early)
      • trial included 180 patients aged 18-85 years with acute ischemic stroke < 6 hours old caused by angiographically proven occlusion of middle cerebral artery (M1 or M2 segment) without hemorrhage or major early infarction signs on computed tomography (CT) scan, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥ 4 (or isolated aphasia or hemianopia)
      • at 54 participating centers, 12,323 patients with acute stroke screened, 474 had cerebral angiography
      • all patients given heparin 2,000 units IV bolus then 500 units/hour for 4 hours starting at time of angiography
      • patients randomized to intra-arterial (under angiographic guidance) recombinant prourokinase 9 mg over 2 hours vs. IV heparin alone
      • baseline differences comparing intra-arterial prourokinase vs. IV heparin alone
        • diabetes in 13% vs. 31%
        • baseline CT scan protocol violations in 10% vs. 4%
      • comparing intra-arterial prourokinase vs. IV heparin alone in intention-to-treat analysis
        • slight or no neurologic disability (modified Rankin Scale score 2 or less) at 90 days in 40% vs. 25% (p = 0.04, NNT 7)
        • mortality 25% vs. 27% (not significant)
        • intracranial hemorrhage with neurological deterioration within 24 hours in 10% vs. 2% (p = 0.06, NNH 12)
        • any intracranial hemorrhage within 24 hours in 35% vs. 13% (p = 0.003, NNH 4)
        • any intracranial hemorrhage within 10 days in 68% vs. 57% (p = 0.23)
        • middle cerebral artery recanalization achieved in 66% vs. 18% (p = 0.001, NNT 2)
      • Reference - PROACT II trial (JAMA 1999 Dec 1;282(21):2003), editorial can be found in JAMA 1999 Dec 1;282(21):2068, commentary can be found in JAMA 2000 Apr 26;283(16):2102
    • intra-arterial urokinase infusion within 6 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion may improve functional outcome (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
      • based on randomized trial without blinding (included in Cochrane review)
      • 114 patients aged 20-75 years with ischemic stroke with angiographic occlusion of M1 or M2 portion of middle cerebral artery were randomized to intra-arterial urokinase infusion vs. conventional treatment
      • trial terminated early after approval of IV infusion of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in Japan for patients presenting < 3 hours after onset
      • comparing urokinase vs. conventional treatment at 90 days
        • modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 2 (favorable outcome) in 49.1% vs. 38.6% (not significant)
        • modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 1 (excellent functional outcome) in 42.1% vs. 22.8% (p = 0.045, NNT 6)
        • symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage in 9% vs. 2% (not significant)
        • mortality 5.3% vs. 3.5% (not significant)
      • Reference - MELT trial (Stroke 2007 Oct;38(10):2633 full-text), editorial can be found in Stroke 2007 Oct;38(10):2627
  • intra-arterial and IV thrombolytics may have similar risks of mortality and fatal intracranial hemorrhage and similar rates of achievement of functional independence in patients with acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on Cochrane review of trials with methodologic limitations
    • systematic review of 20 randomized trials evaluating thrombolytics in 2,527 patients with acute ischemic stroke
    • 5 trials compared different routes of administration; thrombolytics included recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase
    • all trials comparing different routes of administration had ≥ 1 limitation including
      • unclear allocation concealment
      • lack of blinding
      • small sample size
    • all results limited by confidence intervals that cannot exclude clinically relevant differences
    • comparing IV to intra-arterial administration, no significant differences in
      • mortality in analysis of 4 trials with 458 patients
      • death or dependency in analysis of 4 trials with 478 patients
      • fatal intracranial hemorrhage in analysis of 5 trials with 485 patients
    • Reference - Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 May 31;(5):CD000514
    • similar results reported in randomized trial with baseline differences comparing endovascular therapy (mostly with intra-arterial tissue plasminogen activator [tPA]) to IV tPA
      • 362 patients (mean age 67 years) with acute ischemic stroke were randomized to endovascular therapy vs. standard care within 4.5 hours of stroke onset
        • patients randomized to endovascular therapy did not receive tPA IV, but did receive heparin 5,000 units IV bolus then 500 units/hour during angiography completed
        • endovascular therapy was initiated within 6 hours of stroke onset and included (at interventionist discretion) either or both
          • intra-arterial thrombolysis with microcatheter to thrombus plus tPA up to 0.9 mg/kg (maximum dose 90 mg) given within 1 hour but infusion stopped if complete recanalization achieved
          • mechanical clot disruption or retrieval with micro-guidewire or mechanical stent
        • standard care included tPA IV 0.9 mg/kg (maximum dose 90 mg) beginning ≤ 4.5 hours from symptom onset
      • of 181 patients randomized to endovascular therapy
        • 91.2% received endovascular treatment
        • 60.2% had intra-arterial thrombolysis and micro-guidewire thrombus fragmentation
        • 30.9% had mechanical clot disruption with coil retriever, aspiration device, or stent retriever
      • comparing endovascular therapy vs. standard care at baseline
        • median time from stroke onset to start of treatment 3.75 hours vs. 2.75 hours (p < 0.001)
        • atrial fibrillation in 8% vs. 16% (p = 0.02)
        • stroke due to dissection in 8% vs. 2% (p = 0.03)
      • comparing endovascular therapy vs. standard care at 7-90 days
        • survival free of disability (modified Rankin score of 0 or 1) at 90 days in 30.4% vs. 34.8% (not significant)
        • mortality at 90 days 14.4% vs. 9.9% (not significant)
        • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at 7 days in 6% vs. 6% (not significant)
        • mortality at 7 days 8% vs. 6% (not significant)
      • Reference - N Engl J Med 2013 Mar 7;368(10):904 full-text, editorial can be found in N Engl J Med 2013 Mar 7;368(10):952
  • endovascular therapy (mostly with intra-arterial tPA) following IV tPA not found to increase functional independence or decrease mortality compared to tPA alone in patients with moderate-to-severe acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence) in trial not using CT angiography for patient selection
    • based on randomized trial with baseline differences and early trial termination
    • 656 patients (median age 69 years) with moderate-to-severe acute ischemic stroke who started IV tPA infusion within 3 hours of symptom onset were randomized (within 40 minutes of tPA infusion) to endovascular therapy vs. tPA alone
      • initially, all patients had National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥ 10 (80% likelihood of major arterial occlusion) before protocol amended to allow patients with NIHSS score of 8 or 9 plus computed tomography (CT) angiographic evidence of occlusion
      • all patients had tPA 0.9 mg/kg IV with 10% as bolus followed by infusion (over 40 minutes in endovascular group and 1 hour in tPA alone group) to maximum dose 90 mg
      • endovascular therapy included
        • angiography beginning at ≤ 5 hours and completed at ≤ 7 hours of stroke onset
        • if no treatable occlusion on angiography, procedure terminated
        • if treatable major arterial occlusion on angiography
          • heparin 2,000 units IV bolus then 450 units/hour during intra-arterial therapy
          • intra-arterial therapy at interventionist discretion included thrombectomy (Merci retriever, Penumbra system, or Solitaire flow restoration [FR] revascularization device) or intra-arterial delivery of tPA
    • history of coronary artery disease in 23.5% with endovascular therapy vs. 32.4% with tPA alone at baseline (p = 0.01)
    • trial planned to enroll 900 patients, but was terminated early due to futility according to prespecified stopping rule
    • of 434 patients randomized to endovascular therapy
      • 77% received intra-arterial therapy
      • 61.3% had intra-arterial tPA
      • 34.3% had thrombectomy with Merci or Penumbra devices
    • comparing endovascular therapy vs. tPA alone
      • functional independence (mRS score ≤ 2) at 90 days in 40.8% vs. 38.7% (not significant)
      • mortality at 90 days in 19.1% vs. 21.6% (not significant)
      • symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage within 30 hours of tPA initiation in 6.2% vs. 5.9% (not significant)
      • mean total tPA dose was 60.3 mg vs. 72.5 mg (no p value reported)
    • Reference - IMS III trial (N Engl J Med 2013 Mar 7;368(10):893 full-text), correction can be found in N Engl J Med 2013 Mar 28;368(13):1265, editorial can be found in N Engl J Med 2013 Mar 7;368(10):952
    • DynaMed commentary -- MR. CLEAN, ESCAPE, and EXTEND-IA trials excluded patients without proximal occlusion on CT angiography (CTA); the IMS III trial began enrollment before the routine use of CTA to assess vascular occlusions was a common practice; protocol was amended to allow CTA for determining eligibility but CTA only obtained in 46% patients and some patients with CTA not showing occlusion were still enrolled
  • intra-arterial urokinase reported to be used in patients with unclear time of stroke onset and MRI perfusion-diffusion mismatch (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence)
    • based on prospective cohort study without appropriate comparison group
    • 83 patients received reperfusion therapy following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation demonstrating perfusion-diffusion mismatch > 20% and negative or subtle fluid-attenuated inversion
    • comparisons were reported with 156 control patients who did not have MRI or reperfusion therapy, but unknown if control group had perfusion-diffusion mismatch and control group had more severe stroke at baseline
    • reperfusion therapies were
      • intra-arterial urokinase alone in 68.7%
      • IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) plus intra-arterial thrombolytics in 20.5%
      • IV tPA alone in 10.8%
    • good clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale disability score 0-2) at 3 months in 44.6% with reperfusion therapy
    • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at 2 days in 6%
    • Reference - RESTORE trial (Stroke 2012 Dec;43(12):3278 full-text)
  • for acute posterior circulation ischemic stroke
    • intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy within 24 hours of symptom onset might improve clinical outcome in patients with acute posterior circulation ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
      • based on small randomized trial and retrospective cohort study
      • intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy might improve clinical outcome in patients with acute posterior circulation ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
        • based on small randomized trial
        • 16 patients with ischemic stroke due to occlusion of basilar or vertebral arteries were randomized to intra-arterial urokinase within 24 hours of symptom onset vs. no intra-arterial treatment
        • good outcome reported in 4 of 8 patients with intra-arterial urokinase vs. 1 of 8 controls (not significant)
        • Reference - Cerebrovasc Dis 2005;20(1):12
      • intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy may increase survival in patients with acute vertebrobasilar occlusion (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
        • based on retrospective cohort study
        • 65 consecutive patients with brainstem stroke and angiographically confirmed thrombotic vertebrobasilar artery occlusion were evaluated
        • 43 patients received intra-arterial urokinase or streptokinase, mostly within 24 hours after symptom onset
          • 19 patients had recanalization; occlusion persisted in 24 patients
          • 14 patients (33%) survived
          • all patients without recanalization died
          • 10 patients (23%) reported to have favorable clinical outcome
        • 22 patients received antiplatelet medication or anticoagulant therapy
          • 3 (14%) survived
          • all survivors reported to have moderate clinical deficit
        • Reference - Stroke 1988 Oct;19(10):1216
    • intra-arterial thrombolysis reported to lead to recanalization in 70%-80% of patients with basilar artery occlusion but less than half reported good functional outcomes (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence)
      • based on 3 case series
      • intra-arterial urokinase reported to recanalize about 80% basilar artery, but adverse neurological outcomes or death common (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence)
        • based on case series
        • 15 patients (mean age 59 years, mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score 30) with basilar artery occlusion were treated with urokinase (mean 500,000 units) IV over 1-2 hours at mean 12 hours after symptom onset
        • 12 patients had excellent recanalization
        • among 10 surviving patients, 9 had mild or moderate neurological deficits (NIHSS score of 5) at 3 months
        • 5 patients died (33%)
          • all 3 patients without recanalization
          • 2 of 12 patients with excellent recanalization
        • Reference - J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 1999 Jan-Feb;8(1):22
      • intra-arterial tissue plasminogen activator or urokinase thrombolysis reported to recanalize about 75% but is associated with favorable outcome in only 40% (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence)
        • based on case series
        • 52 patients with basilar artery occlusion had intra-arterial thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator or urokinase within 48 hours of symptom onset
        • 16 patients also had stent placement
        • favorable clinical outcome in 22 patients (42.3%)
        • 20 patients (38.5%) died
        • recanalization
          • successful in 24 patients (46.2%)
          • partial in 16 patients (30.7%)
        • recanalization was significantly associated with
          • National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score < 14
          • treatment within 24 hours of symptom onset
        • Reference - J Vasc Interv Radiol 2010 Sep;21(9):1359
      • intra-arterial thrombolysis reported to provide good long-term (> 1 year) functional outcome in about one-third of patients (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence)
        • based on case series
        • 106 patients (mean age 62 years) with basilar artery occlusion were treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis -- urokinase median 1,000,000 units (58 patients), mechanical thrombolysis (15 patients), or both urokinase and mechanical thrombolysis (33 patients)
        • 50.5% of patients treated within 6 hours of symptom onset
        • complete or partial recanalization achieved in 69.8%
        • at 3-month follow-up
          • mortality in 40.6%
          • good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) in 33%
          • moderate functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 3) in 11.3%
        • at long-term (> 1 year) follow-up of 94 patients
          • mortality in 43.6%
          • good functional outcome in 34%
          • moderate functional outcome in 8.6%
        • diabetes was associated with poor vessel recanalization (multivariate analysis p = 0.028)
        • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 1 patient
        • Reference - Stroke 2011 Jul;42(7):1946 full-text

Ambulance-Based Thrombolysis

  • ambulance-based thrombolysis appears to reduce time to treatment without increasing adverse events (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on quasi-randomized trial
    • 6,182 adults (median age 74 years) with suspected acute ischemic stroke and onset within 4 hours were assigned by week to ambulance-based thrombolysis vs. usual ambulance care
      • ambulance-based thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) conducted in mobile stroke units equipped with computed tomography (CT) scanner, point-of-care laboratory, telemedicine connection, stroke identification algorithm at dispatcher level, and prehospital stroke team
      • t-PA given prior to hospital transport (≤ 4.5 hours of symptom onset) if ischemic stroke confirmed
    • 34% of patients overall had confirmed ischemic stroke
    • mobile stroke unit was available and deployed for 56% of patients assigned to ambulance-based thrombolysis
    • of patients with confirmed stroke, t-PA received in
      • 29% with ambulance-based thrombolysis overall
      • 32.6% with deployed ambulance-based thrombolysis
      • 21.1% with usual ambulance care
    • mean alarm to t-PA times
      • 61.4 minutes with ambulance-based thrombolysis overall (p < 0.001 vs. usual ambulance care)
      • 51.8 minutes with deployed ambulance-based thrombolysis (p < 0.001 vs. usual ambulance care)
      • 76.3 minutes with usual ambulance care
    • mean onset to t-PA times
      • 110.1 minutes with ambulance-based thrombolysis overall (p = 0.003 vs. usual ambulance care)
      • 102.7 minutes with deployed ambulance-based thrombolysis (p < 0.001 vs. usual ambulance care)
      • 118.5 minutes with usual ambulance care
    • no significant differences in 7-day or in-hospital mortality
    • in patients who received mobile stroke unit care, ambulance-based thrombolysis associated with nonsignificant decrease in risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio 0.42, 95% CI 0.18-1.03)
    • Reference - PHANTOM-S trial (JAMA 2014 Apr 23-30;311(16):1622), editorial can be found in JAMA 2014 Apr 23-30;311(16):1615
  • mobile stroke unit reduces time to IV thrombolysis in patients with acute stroke (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence), but insufficient evidence to rule out increase in mortality (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on randomized trial with inadequate statistical power for clinical outcomes
    • 100 patients aged 18-80 years having ≥ 1 stroke symptom within 2.5 hours of emergency call randomized to mobile stroke unit vs. hospital-based usual care and followed for 7 days
    • mobile stroke unit described as specialized ambulance with CT scanner, point-of-care laboratory, and telemedicine connection
    • trial discontinued at interim analysis when predetermined criteria met for emergency call-to-decision time
    • comparing mobile stroke unit vs. hospital-based care
      • median time from emergency call to therapy decision 35 minutes vs. 76 minutes (p < 0.0001)
      • median time from symptom onset to therapy decision 56 minutes vs. 104 minutes (p < 0.0001)
      • median time from symptom onset to IV thrombolysis 72 minutes vs. 153 minutes (p < 0.001)
      • 7-day mortality 11% vs. 4% (not significant)
    • Reference - Lancet Neurol 2012 May;11(5):397, editorial can be found in Lancet Neurol 2012 May;11(5):382

Quality Improvement

Medicare/Joint Commission National Hospital Inpatient Quality Measures

  • Stroke (STK) measures
    • STK-4 Thrombolytic Therapy
      • measured as proportion of acute ischemic stroke patients whose time of arrival is within 2 hours (120 minutes) of time last known well for whom IV thrombolytic therapy was initiated at this hospital within 3 hours (180 minutes) of time last known well
  • see Medicare/Joint Commission National Hospital Inpatient Quality Measures for additional information

Physician Quality Reporting System Quality Measures

  • 187. Stroke and Stroke Rehabilitation: Thrombolytic Therapy
    • Percentage of patients ≥ 18 years old with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke who arrive at the hospital within 2 hours of time last known well and for whom IV t-PA was initiated within 3 hours of time last known well
    • American College of Physicians (ACP) does not support this performance measure
      • "ACP believes that the measure specification requires further clarification. It is not clinically specific regarding the indications for treatment. There is evidence that the harms of thrombolytic therapy may outweigh the benefit in some cases, especially if the full exclusion criteria published by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and others are not followed. This should be made explicit in the measure exclusion criteria. There also are specific qualifications hospitals must meet in order to provide tPa. The absence of such conditions should also be noted as an exclusion criterion. There may also be regional variations in the availability of qualifying institutions, potentially making this measure inapplicable to all physicians in some areas."
      • Reference - ACP Performance Measure Review 2014 Apr 7 PDF
  • see Physician Quality Reporting System Quality Measures for additional information

Door-to-needle time expectations

Quality improvement evidence

  • national quality improvement initiative associated with decreased time to thrombolytic administration and improved clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (level 2 [mid-level] evidence)
    • based on before-and-after study
    • 71,169 patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) in United States were evaluated before and after implementation of national quality improvement initiative
      • 27,319 patients (38%) were treated from April 2003 to December 2009 before initiative
      • 43,850 patients (62%) were treated from January 2010 to September 2013 after initiative
    • national quality improvement initiative consisted of 10 care strategies to achieve shorter door-to-needle times for t-PA administration, provided clinical decision support tools, facilitated hospital participation, and encouraged sharing of best practices
    • comparing before vs. after national quality improvement initiative
      • median door-to-needle time for t-PA administration 77 minutes vs. 67 minutes (p < 0.001)
      • door-to-needle time for t-PA administration ≤ 1 hour in 26.5% vs. 41.3% (p < 0.001)
      • in-hospital all-cause mortality 9.93% vs. 8.25% (p < 0.001)
      • symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at ≤ 36 hours in 5.68% vs. 4.68% (p < 0.001)
      • discharge to home in 37.6% vs. 42.7% (p < 0.001)
    • Reference - JAMA 2014 Apr 23-30;311(16):1632, editorial can be found in JAMA 2014 Apr 23-30;311(16):1615
  • telehealth for acute stroke management (telestroke) reported to improve access to thrombolysis (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence)
  • multicomponent intervention might increase use of alteplase for patients with acute stroke in community hospitals (level 3 [lacking direct] evidence)
    • based on cluster-randomized trial without clinical outcomes and with borderline significance
    • 24 community hospitals with 40,823 patients with acute stroke randomized to multicomponent intervention to increase alteplase use vs. control for 1 year and followed to 3 years
    • multicomponent intervention included qualitative and quantitative assessment of barriers to alteplase use, methods to address barriers, and additional support
    • baseline rate of alteplase use 1.25% in intervention and control hospitals
    • alteplase use in emergency department increased by 1.54% with multicomponent intervention vs. 0.85% with control (p = 0.08)
    • Reference - Lancet Neurol 2013 Feb;12(2):139, editorial can be found in Lancet Neurol 2013 Feb;12(2):120

Guidelines and Resources

Guidelines

United States guidelines

  • American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (Ninth Edition) on antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke can be found in Chest 2012 Feb;141(2 Suppl):e601S full-text
  • Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI) guideline on diagnosis and initial treatment of ischemic stroke can be found at ICSI 2016 Dec PDF
  • American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology (ASITN/SIR) statement on emergency interventional stroke therapy (intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy) can be found in J Vasc Interv Radiol 2003 Sep;14(9 Pt 2):S385
  • American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM) position statement on use of intravenous thrombolytic therapy in treatment of stroke can be found at AAEM 2002 Jan 9

United Kingdom guidelines

  • Royal College of Physicians (RCP) national clinical guideline on stroke can be found at RCP 2016 Oct 3 PDF
  • Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) national clinical guideline on management of patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) (assessment, investigation, immediate management, and secondary prevention) can be found at SIGN 2008 Dec PDF

Canadian guidelines

  • Canadian Stroke Network and Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada best practice recommendations on stroke care can be found at Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations (CSBPR), hyperacute stroke care can be found at CSBPR 2013 May 23 PDF
  • Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) position statement on acute ischemic stroke can be found at CJEM 2015 Mar;17(2):217 PDF

European guidelines

  • European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guideline on ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack can be found at ESO 2011 PDF
  • Haute Autorité de Santé conseils pour accident vasculaire cérébral: prise en charge précoce (alerte, phase préhospitalière, phase hospitalière initiale, indications de la thrombolyse) se trouvent sur le site Haute Autorité de Santé 2009 Mai [French], portions also published in English

Asian guidelines

  • Chinese Stroke Therapy Expert Panel (CSTEP) consensus statement on use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator to treat acute ischemic stroke can be found in CNS Neurosci Ther 2013 Aug;19(8):543
  • Joint Committee of Japan Stroke Society (JStS) guideline on management of stroke can be found at JStS 2009 PDF [Japanese 日本語]

Australian and New Zealand guidelines

  • National Stroke Foundation (NSF) (Australia) clinical guideline on stroke management can be found at NSF 2010 PDF
  • Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) statement on IV thrombolysis for ischaemic stroke can be found at ACEM 2014 Mar PDF
  • New Zealand Faculty of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) consensus statement on thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke can be found at NZ Faculty of ACEM 2013 Jun PDF
  • combined consensus statement on thrombolysis for acute stroke from New Zealand Faculty of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) and National Stroke Network Leadership Group can be found in N Z Med J 2014 Apr 11;127(1392):113
  • National Stroke Foundation/Stroke Society of Australasia (NSF/SSA) position statement on implementation of IV tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke can be found in Intern Med J 2009 May;39(5):317

African guidelines

Review articles

Patient Information

References

General references used

  • 1. Jauch EC, Saver JL, Adams HP Jr, et al; American Heart Association Stroke Council, Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease, and Council on Clinical Cardiology. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2013 Mar;44(3):870-947 full-text
  • 2. Lansberg MG, O'Donnell MJ, Khatri P, et al. Antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2 Suppl):e601S-36S full-text or at National Guideline Clearinghouse 2012 Jun 4:35272
  • 3. American College of Emergency Physicians, American Academy of Neurology. Clinical Policy: Use of intravenous tPA for the management of acute ischemic stroke in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2013 Feb;61(2):225-43 PDF
  • 4. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Alteplase for treating acute ischemic stroke (review of technology appraisal guidance 122). NICE 2012 Sep:TA264 PDF or at National Guideline Clearinghouse 2013 Jan 7:38443
  • 5. Xu AD, Wang YJ, Wang DZ. Consensus statement on the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator to treat acute ischemic stroke by the Chinese Stroke Therapy Expert Panel. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2013 Aug;19(8):543-8
  • 6. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) Executive Committee and the ESO Writing Committee. Chapter 9. Ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack. In: Gilhus NE, Barnes MP, and Bainin M, eds. European Handbook of Neurological Management: Volume 1, 2nd ed. 2011:101-158. ESO 2011 PDF
  • 7. Haute Autorité de Santé. Stroke: early management (alert, prehospital phase, initial hospital phase, indications for thrombolysis). Clinical practice guideline. 2009. HAS 2009 May PDF
  • 8. Minematsu K, Toyoda K, Hirano T, et al. Guidelines for the intravenous application of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (alteplase), the second edition, October 2012: a guideline from the Japan Stroke Society. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013 Jul;22(5):571-600
  • 9. National Stroke Foundation (Australia). Clinical Guidelines for Stroke Management. 2010 NSF 2010 PDF
  • 10. Bryer A, Connor M, Haug P, et al. South African guideline for management of ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack 2010: a guideline from the South African Stroke Society (SASS) and the SASS Writing Committee. S Afr Med J. 2010 Nov 10;100(11 Pt 2):747-78
  • 11. Harris D, Hall C, Lobay K, etc. Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians position statement on acute ischemic stroke. CJEM. 2015 Mar;17(2):217-26 PDF
  • 12. American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP). Clinical Policy: Use of Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator for the Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Emergency Department. Ann Emerg Med. 2015 Sep;66(3):322-333 PDF
  • 13. Casaubon LK, Suddes M, on behalf of the Acute Stroke Care Writing Group. Chapter 3: Hyperacute Stroke Care. In Lindsay MP, Gubitz G, Bayley M, and Phillips S, eds, on behalf of the Canadian Stroke Best Practices and Standards Advisory Committee. Canadian Best Practice Recommendations for Stroke Care: 2013; Ottawa, Ontario Canada: Canadian Stroke Network and Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. Updated May 23, 2013. Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations 2013 May 23 PDF
  • 14. Genetech, Inc. ACTIVASE (alteplase). Package Insert. DailyMed 2015 Feb PDF (download)
  • 15. Genetech, Inc. ACTIVASE rt-PA (alteplase). Product Monograph for Acute Ischemic Stroke Indication Only. Health Canada Database 2013 Dec 9
  • 16. Boehringer Ingelheim Limited. Actiylse. Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) on Electronic Medicines Compendium (EMC). eMC 2013 Oct 30

Recommendation grading systems used

  • American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) grades
    • Grade 1 - strong recommendation based on clear risk/benefit balance
    • Grade 2 - weak recommendation based on unclear or close risk/benefit balance
    • Grade A - high-quality evidence based on consistent evidence from randomized trials without important limitations or exceptionally strong evidence from observational studies
    • Grade B - moderate-quality evidence based on randomized trials with important limitations (inconsistent results, methodologic flaws, indirect or imprecise results) or very strong evidence from observational studies
    • Grade C - low- or very low-quality evidence based on observational studies, case series, or randomized trials with serious flaws or indirect evidence
    • Reference - ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guideline on methodology for development of antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis (Chest 2012 Feb;141(2 Suppl):53S full-text), commentary can be found in Chest 2013 Apr;143(4):1190
  • American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) grades of recommendation
    • levels of recommendation
      • Level A - generally accepted principles for patient care that reflect a high degree of clinical certainty (based on evidence from ≥ 1 Class I study, or multiple Class II studies)
      • Level B - recommendations for patient care that may identify a particular strategy or range of strategies that reflect moderate clinical certainty (based on evidence from ≥ 1 Class II study, or strong consensus of Class III studies)
      • Level C -
        • recommendations for patient care that are based on evidence from Class III studies, or in the absence of any adequate published literature, based on expert consensus
        • in instances where consensus recommendations are made, “consensus” is placed in parentheses at the end of the recommendation
    • classification of evidence
      • Class I studies
        • for therapy - randomized trial or meta-analysis of randomized trials
        • for diagnosis - prospective cohort using criterion standard or meta-analysis of prospective studies
        • for prognosis - population prospective cohort study or meta-analysis of prospective studies
      • Class II studies
        • for therapy - nonrandomized trial
        • for diagnosis - retrospective observational study
        • for prognosis - retrospective cohort or case-control study
      • Class III studies - case series, case report, or other (for example, consensus, review)
    • Reference - ACEP clinical policy on use of IV tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) for management of acute ischemic stroke in emergency department (ACEP Clinical Policy 2015 Jun 24 PDF)
  • American College of Emergency Physicians/American Academy of Neurology (ACEP/AAN) grades of recommendation
    • levels of recommendation
      • Level A - generally accepted principles for patient management with high degree of clinical certainty (Class I evidence or overwhelming Class II evidence that directly addresses all the issues)
      • Level B - moderate clinical certainty (Class II evidence that directly addresses the issue, decision analysis that directly addresses the issue, or strong consensus of Class III studies)
      • Level C - based on preliminary, inconclusive, or conflicting evidence, or based on panel consensus without any published literature
    • classification of evidence
      • Class I studies
        • for therapy - randomized trial or meta-analysis of randomized trials
        • for diagnosis - prospective cohort using criteria standard
        • for prognosis - population prospective cohort study
      • Class II studies
        • for therapy - nonrandomized trial
        • for diagnosis - retrospective observational study
        • for prognosis - retrospective cohort or case-control study
      • Class III studies - case series, case report, or other (for example, consensus, review) for any type of study
  • American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) grading system for recommendations
    • classifications of recommendations
      • Class I - procedure or treatment should be performed or administered
      • Class IIa - reasonable to perform procedure or administer treatment, but additional studies with focused objectives needed
      • Class IIb - procedure or treatment may be considered; additional studies with broad objectives needed, additional registry data would be useful
      • Class III - procedure or treatment should not be performed or administered because it is not helpful or may be harmful
        • Class III ratings may be subclassified as Class III No Benefit or Class III Harm
    • levels of evidence
      • Level A - data derived from multiple randomized clinical trials or meta-analyses
      • Level B - data derived from single randomized trial or nonrandomized studies
      • Level C - only consensus opinions of experts, case studies, or standard of care
  • Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) approach for applying recommendations labels
    • "The mandate of the CAEP Stroke Practice Committee members was to review specific topics in acute stroke care working in collaboration and develop guidance based on existing clinical practice guidelines and/or systematic reviews of the literature. The terms of reference for the committee were approved by the CAEP board and are available upon request. The main features involve a national representation of emergency physicians with interest and expertise in acute stroke and transparent procedures for voting recommendations into strong or weak categories. There was no attempt to conduct de novo systematic reviews or employ specific guideline methodologies develop this document and hence this guidance. The strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence designations reflect a consensus-based process emanating from the committee. Although not adhering strictly to the GRADE method of consensus, GRADE terminology was followed as a template for developing these recommendations (BMJ 2008 Apr 26;336(7650):924). Conflicts of interest were addressed on early teleconferences and were intended to be supplemented by ICJME declarations as publication approached. There are no relevant pharmaceutical conflicts although many of the panellists were selected because they hold 'stroke' portfolios in their region, some of which are remunerated. There were no specific voting procedures invoked and hence no need to recuse panellists. All decisions were reached by consensus and no panellist was excluded from any discussion."
    • Reference - CAEP position statement on acute ischemic stroke (CJEM 2015 Mar;17(2):217 PDF)
  • Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations (CSBPR) levels of evidence
    • Evidence Level A - meta-analysis of randomized trials or consistent findings from ≥ 2 randomized trials; desirable effects clearly outweigh undesirable effects or vice versa
    • Evidence Level B - single randomized trial or consistent findings from ≥ 2 well-designed nonrandomized and/or noncontrolled trials, and large observational studies; desirable effects outweigh or are closely balanced with undesirable effects or vice versa
    • Evidence Level C - writing group consensus and/or supported by limited research evidence; desirable effects outweigh or are closely balanced with undesirable effects or vice versa
    • Reference - Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations Overview and Methodology (CSBPR 2014 PDF)
  • Chinese Stroke Therapy Expert Panel (CSTEP) for Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator grades of recommendation
    • strength of recommendation
      • Level I - based on Level A evidence or unanimous consensus of experts
      • Level II - based on Level B evidence and expert consensus
      • Level III - based on Level C evidence and expert consensus
      • Level IV - based on Level D evidence and expert consensus
    • evidence level of therapeutic measures
      • Level A - data from meta-analysis or systematic review of multiple randomized clinical trials (RCT); multiple RCTs or single high-quality RCT with adequate sample size
      • Level B - data from ≥ 1 relatively high-quality RCT
      • Level C - data from well-designed controlled trial without randomization, or well-designed cohort study or case-control study
      • Level D - data from case series analysis without concurrent control or from expert opinion
    • Reference - Chinese Stroke Therapy Expert Panel for Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator consensus statement on use of IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator to treat acute ischemic stroke (CNS Neurosci Ther 2013 Aug;19(8):543)
  • European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) levels of recommendations
    • levels of recommendation
      • Level A - established as useful/predictive or not useful/predictive, requires at least 1 convincing Class I study or at least 2 consistent, convincing Class II studies
      • Level B - established as probably useful/predictive or not useful/predictive, requires at least 1 convincing Class II study or overwhelming Class III evidence
      • Level C - established as possibly useful/predictive or not useful/predictive
      • GCPP - good clinical practice point, supported primarily by expert opinion
    • evidence classification
      • Class I - prospective study in broad spectrum of persons with suspected condition, using 'gold standard' for case definition, where test is applied in blinded evaluation, and enabling assessment of appropriate tests of diagnostic accuracy
      • Class II - prospective study of narrow spectrum of persons with suspected condition, or well-designed retrospective study of broad spectrum of persons with established condition (by 'gold standard') compared with broad spectrum of controls, where test is applied in blinded evaluation, and enabling assessment of appropriate tests of diagnostic accuracy
      • Class III - retrospective study where either persons with established condition or controls are of narrow spectrum, and where test is applied in blinded evaluation
      • Class IV - test not applied in blinded evaluation OR evidence provided by expert opinion alone or in descriptive case series (without controls)
    • Reference - EFNS guideline on use of imaging in cerebrovascular disease (EFNS 2011 PDF)
  • European Stroke Organisation (ESO) grades of recommendation
    • levels of evidence
      • Level A
        • established either as useful/predictive or not useful/predictive for diagnostic measure
        • established as effective, ineffective, or harmful for therapeutic intervention
        • requires ≥ 1 convincing Class I study or ≥ 2 consistent, convincing Class II studies
      • Level B
        • established either as useful/predictive or not useful/predictive for diagnostic measure
        • established as effective, ineffective, or harmful for therapeutic intervention
        • requires ≥ 1 convincing Class II study or overwhelming Class III evidence
      • Level C
        • established either as useful/predictive or not useful/predictive for diagnostic measure
        • established as effective, ineffective, or harmful for therapeutic intervention
        • requires ≥ 2 class III studies
      • Good Clinical Practice (GCP) - recommended best practice based on experience of guideline development group
    • classification of evidence
      • Class I
        • adequately powered, prospective, randomized controlled trial (RCT) with masked outcome assessment in representative population
        • adequately powered systematic review of prospective RCTs with masked outcome assessment in representative populations
      • Class II
        • prospective matched-group cohort study in representative population with masked outcome assessment
        • RCT in representative population that lacks 1 criterion for Class I evidence
      • Class III - all other controlled trials in representative population where outcome assessment independent of patient treatment
      • Class IV - evidence from uncontrolled studies, case series, case reports, or expert opinion
    • Reference - ESO guideline on ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack (ESO 2011 PDF)
  • Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) grades of recommendation
    • Grade A - trials of high level of evidence (such as, high-power randomized controlled trials [RCTs] free of major bias and/or meta-analyses of RCTs)
    • Grade B - studies of intermediate level of evidence (such as, RCTs with some bias, meta-analyses based on questionable methodology, or well-conducted non-RCTs)
    • Grade C - studies of lower level of evidence (such as, case control studies or case series)
    • Professional Agreement - in absence of reliable studies guidelines based on agreement among members of working group and peer reviewers
    • Reference - HAS clinical practice guideline on stroke: early management (alert, prehospital phase, initial hospital phase, indications for thrombolysis) (HAS 2009 PDF)
  • Japan Stroke Society (JSS) grades of recommendation
    • grades of recommendation
      • Grade A - strongly recommended
      • Grade B - recommended
      • Grade C1 - may be worth considering, but there is insufficient evidence
      • Grade C2 - not recommended because of a lack of evidence
      • Grade D - recommended against
    • levels of evidence
      • Level Ia - meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
      • Level Ib - ≥ 1 RCT
      • Level IIa - ≥ 1 well-designed, controlled study but without randomization
      • Level IIb - ≥ 1 well-designed, quasi-experimental study
      • Level III - ≥ 1 well-designed, nonexperimental descriptive study (such as, comparative studies, correlation studies, and case studies)
      • Level IV - expert committee reports, opinions, and/or experience of respected authorities
    • Reference - JSS guideline on IV application of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (alteplase) (J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2013 Jul;22(5):571)
  • National Stroke Foundation (NSF) (Australia) grades of recommendation
    • Grade A - body of evidence can be trusted to guide practice
    • Grade B - body of evidence can be trusted to guide practice in most situations
    • Grade C - body of evidence provides some support for recommendation but care should be taken in application
    • Grade D - body of evidence weak and must be applied with caution
    • Good Practice Point - recommended best practice based on clinical experience and expert opinion
    • Reference - NSF (Australia) clinical guideline on stroke management (NSF 2010 PDF)
  • South African Stroke Society (SASS) grades of recommendation
    • levels of evidence
      • Level A
        • established as useful/predictive or not useful/predictive for a diagnostic measure or established as effective, ineffective, or harmful for a therapeutic intervention
        • requires ≥ 1 convincing class I study or at least 2 consistent, convincing class II studies
      • Level B
        • established as useful/predictive or not useful/predictive for a diagnostic measure or established as effective, ineffective, or harmful for a therapeutic intervention
        • requires ≥ 1 convincing class II study or overwhelming class III evidence
      • Level C
        • established as useful/predictive or not useful/predictive for a diagnostic measure or established as effective, ineffective, or harmful for a therapeutic intervention
        • requires ≥ 2 class III studies
      • Good Clinical Practice (GCP)
        • recommended best practice based on the experience of the guideline development group
        • usually based on class IV evidence indicating large clinical uncertainty (such GCP points can be useful for health workers)
    • classification schemes
      • Class I
        • diagnostic measure - prospective study in a broad spectrum of persons with the suspected condition, using ‘gold standard’ for case definition, where the test is applied in blinded evaluation, and enabling assessment of appropriate tests of diagnostic accuracy
        • therapeutic intervention - adequately powered, prospective, randomized, controlled trial (RCT) with masked outcome assessment in a representative population; or an adequately powered systematic review of prospective, RCT with masked outcome assessment in representative populations
      • Class II
        • diagnostic measure - prospective study of narrow spectrum of persons with suspected condition, or well-designed retrospective study of broad spectrum of persons with established condition (by ‘gold standard’) compared with broad spectrum of controls, where test is applied in blinded evaluation, and enabling assessment of appropriate tests of diagnostic accuracy
        • therapeutic intervention - prospective matched-group cohort study in a representative population with masked outcome assessment; or a RCT in a representative population that lacks 1 criterion for class I evidence
      • Class III
        • evidence provided by retrospective study where either persons with established condition or controls are of narrow spectrum, and where test is applied in blinded evaluation
        • therapeutic intervention - all other controlled trials (including well-defined natural history controls or patients serving as own controls) in representative population, where outcome assessment is independent of patient treatment
      • Class IV (for diagnostic measures or therapeutic interventions) - evidence from uncontrolled studies, case series, case reports, or expert opinion
    • Reference - SASS 2010 guideline on management of ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack (S Afr Med J 2010 Nov 10;100(11 Pt 2):747)

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  • DynaMed topics are created and maintained by the DynaMed Editorial Team and Process.
  • All editorial team members and reviewers have declared that they have no financial or other competing interests related to this topic, unless otherwise indicated.
  • DynaMed provides Practice-Changing DynaMed Updates, with support from our partners, McMaster University and F1000.

Special acknowledgements

  • Alexander Rae-Grant, MD (Neurologist, Cleveland Clinic; Ohio, United States)
  • Dr. Rae-Grant has declared that he has no financial conflicts of interest.
  • Amir Qaseem, MD, PhD, MHA, FACP (Vice President of Clinical Policy, American College of Physicians; Pennsylvania, United States; President Emeritus, Guidelines International Network (GIN); Germany)
  • Dr. Qaseem has declared that he has no financial conflicts of interest.
  • Alan Ehrlich, MD (Executive Editor; Clinical Associate Professor of Family Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School; Massachusetts, United States)

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    • DynaMed [Internet]. Ipswich (MA): EBSCO Information Services. 1995 - . Record No. 114577, Thrombolytics for acute stroke; [updated 2016 Feb 23, cited place cited date here]; [about 59 screens]. Available from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=dnh&AN=114577&site=dynamed-live&scope=site. Registration and login required.

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